Advertisement

Disturbance in Boreal Peatlands

  • Merritt R. Turetsky
  • Vincent L. St. Louis
Part of the Ecological Studies book series (ECOLSTUD, volume 188)

Keywords

Boreal Forest Global Biogeochem Cycle Beaver Pond Fire Return Interval Peat Extraction 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aber JD, Melillo JM (1991) Terrestrial ecosystems. Saunders College Publishing, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  2. Aerts R, Wallen B, Malmer N (1992) Growth-limiting nutrients in Sphagnum-dominated bogs subject to low and high atmospheric nitrogen supply. J Ecol 80:131–140Google Scholar
  3. Alberta’s Boreal Caribou Research Program (1999) http://www.deer.rr.ualberta.ca/caribou/BCRP.htmGoogle Scholar
  4. Amiro BD, MacPherson JI, Desjardins RL, Chen JM, Liu J (2003) Post-fire carbon dioxide fluxes in the western Canadian boreal forest: evidence from towers, aircraft and remote sensing. Agric For Meteorol 115: 91–107Google Scholar
  5. Augustin J, Merbach W, Schmidt W, Reining E (1996) Effect of changing temperature and water table on trace gas emission from minerotrophic mires. Angew Bot 70:45–51Google Scholar
  6. Augustin J, Merbach W, Rogasik J (1998) Factors influencing nitrous oxide and methane emissions from minerotrophic fens in northeast Germany. Biol Fertil Soils 28:1–4Google Scholar
  7. Bayley SE, Behr RS, Kelly CA (1986) Retention and release of S from a freshwater wetland. Water Air Soil Pollut 31:101–114Google Scholar
  8. Bedford BL, Godwin KS (2003) Fens of the United States: distribution, characteristics, and scientific connection versus legal isolation. Wetlands 23:608–629Google Scholar
  9. Beilman DW (2001) Plant community and diversity change due to localized permafrost dynamics in bogs of western Canada. Can J Bot 79:983–993Google Scholar
  10. Beilman DW, Vitt DH, Halsey LA (2001) Localized permafrost peatlands in western Canada: definitions, distributions and degradation. Arct Antarct Alp Res 33:70–77Google Scholar
  11. Bradshaw CJA, Hebert DM, Rippin AB, Boutin S (1995) Winter peatland habitat selection by woodland caribou in northeastern Alberta. Can J Zool 73:1567–1574Google Scholar
  12. Brinson MM, Malvarez AI (2002) Temperate freshwater wetlands: types, status, and threats. Environ Conserv 29:115–133Google Scholar
  13. Brown K (1985) Sulphur distribution and metabolism in waterlogged peat. Soil Biol Biochem 17:39–45Google Scholar
  14. Camill P (1999) Patterns of boreal permafrost peatland vegetation across environmental gradients sensitive to climate warming. Can J Bot 77:721–733Google Scholar
  15. Camill P, Lynch JA, Clark JS, Adam JB, Jordan B (2001) Changes in biomass, aboveground net primary production, and peat accumulation following permafrost thaw in the boreal peatlands of Manitoba, Canada. Ecosystems 4:461–478Google Scholar
  16. Cannell MGR, Dewar RC, Pyatt DG (1993) Conifer plantations on drained peat in Britain: a net gain or loss of carbon? Forestry 66:356–369Google Scholar
  17. Cappuccino N, Lavertu D, Bergeron Y, Régnicre J (1998) Spruce budworm impact, abundance and parasitism rate in a patchy landscape. Oecologia 114:236–242Google Scholar
  18. Clymo RS, Hayward PM (1982) The ecology of Sphagnum. Chapman and Hall, London, pp 229–289Google Scholar
  19. Cogbill CV (1985) Dynamics of the boreal forests of the Laurentian Highlands, Canada. Can J For Res 15:252–261Google Scholar
  20. Cooper A, McCann T, Power J (1997) Regional variation in the cover, species composition and management of blanket bog. Landscape Urban Plan 37:19–28Google Scholar
  21. Cooper A, McCann TP, Hamill B (2001) Vegetation regeneration on blanket mire after mechanized peat-cutting. Global Ecol Biogeogr 10:275–289Google Scholar
  22. Coote DR, Gregorich LJ (eds) (2000) The health of our water — toward sustainable agriculture in Canada. Research Planning and Coordination Directorate, Research Branch, Agriculture and AgriFood Canada, OttawaGoogle Scholar
  23. Crill PM, Martikainen PJ, Nykänen H, Silvola J(1994) Temperature and N fertilization effects on methane oxidation in a drained peatland soil. Soil Biol Biochem 26:1331–1339Google Scholar
  24. Dahl TE (1990) Wetlands losses in the United States 1780’s to 1980’s. US Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, DC, Jamestown: Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center. http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/resource/othrdata/wetloss/wetloss.htm. Version 16 July 1997Google Scholar
  25. Dale VH, Joyce LA, McNaulty S, Neilson RP, Ayres MR, Flannigan MD, Hanson PJ, Irland LC, Lugo AE, Peterson CJ, Simberloff D, Swanson FJ, Stocks BJ, Wotton BM (2001) Climate change and forest disturbances. BioScience 51:723–734Google Scholar
  26. Davey MC (1999) The elemental and biochemical composition of bryophytes from the maritime Antarctic. Antarct Sci 11:157–159Google Scholar
  27. Davidson AJ, Harborne JB, Longton RE (1990) The acceptability of mosses as food for generalist herbivores, slugs in the Arionidea. Bot J Linn Soc 104:99–113Google Scholar
  28. Dove A, Roulet NT, Crill P, Chanton J, Bourbornierre R (1999) Methane dynamics of a northern boreal beaver pond. Écoscience 6:577–586Google Scholar
  29. Efremova TT, Efremov SP (1994) Peat fires as an ecological factor in the development of forest-bog ecosystems. Russ J Ecol 25:330–335Google Scholar
  30. Evans R (1997) Soil erosion in the UK initiated by grazing animals: a need for a national survey. Appl Geogr 17:127–141Google Scholar
  31. Flinn MA, Wein RW (1977) Depth of underground plant organs and theoretical survival during fire. Can J Bot 55:2550–2554Google Scholar
  32. Garnett MH, Ineson P, Stevenson AC (2000) Effects of burning and grazing on carbon sequestration in a Pennine blanket bog, UK. Holocene 10:729–736Google Scholar
  33. Gunnarsson U, Rydin H (2000) Nitrogen fertilization reduces Sphagnum production in bog communities. New Phytol 147:527–537Google Scholar
  34. Halsey L, Vitt D, Zoltai S (1997) Climatic and physiographic controls on wetland type and distribution in Manitoba, Canada. Wetlands 17:243–262Google Scholar
  35. Harden JH, Neff JC, Sandberg DV, Turetsky MR, Ottmar R, Gleixner G, Fries TL, Manies KL (2004) The chemistry of burning the forest floor during the FROSTFIRE experimental burn, interior Alaska. Global Biogeochem Cycles 18:GB3014. DOI 10.1029/2003GB002194Google Scholar
  36. Heinselman ML (1973) Fire in the virgin forests of the Boundary Waters Canoe Area, Minnesota. Quat Res 3:329–382Google Scholar
  37. Hobbs RJ (1984) Length of burning rotation and community composition in high-level Calluna-Eriophorum bog in northern England. Vegetatio 57:129–136Google Scholar
  38. Hobbs RJ, Gimingham CH (1980) Some effects of fire and grazing on heath vegetation. Bull Ecol 11:709–715Google Scholar
  39. Hogg EH, Schwarz AG (1999) Tree-ring analysis of declining aspen stands in west-central Saskatchewan. Canadian Forest Service, Northern Forestry Centre, information report NOR-X-359, EdmontonGoogle Scholar
  40. Immirzi CP, Maltby E, Clymo, RS (1992) The global status of peatlands and their role in carbon cycling. A report for Friends of the Earth by the Wetland Ecosystems Research Group, Department of Geography, University of Exeter. Friends of the Earth, LondonGoogle Scholar
  41. International Peat Society (2002) Statement on the wise use of peatlands. http://www.imcg.net/docum/wise0204.pdfGoogle Scholar
  42. IUCN (2000) Executive Summary of the WWDR (2000) vision for water and nature. a world strategy for conservation and sustainable management of water resources in the 21st century — compilation of all project Documents. CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  43. James ARC, Stuart-Smith AK (2000) Distribution of caribou and wolves in relation to linear corridors. J Wild Manage 64:154–159Google Scholar
  44. Jones TA, Hughes JMR (1993) Waterfowl and wetland conservation in the 1990s — a global perspective. Wetland inventories and wetland loss studies — a European perspective. Proceedings of the IWRB symposium, St Petersburg Beach, Florida, USA. IWRB special publication no 26. IWRB, Slimbridge, pp 164–169Google Scholar
  45. Joosten H, Clarke D (2002) Wise use of mires and peatlands. Background and principles including a framework for decision making. International Mire Society and the International Peat Conservation Group. http://www.mirewiseuse.comGoogle Scholar
  46. Kasimir-Klemedtsson A, Klemdtsson L, Berglund K, Marikainen PJ, Silvola J, Oenema O (1997) Greenhouse gas emissions from farmed organic soils: a review. Soil Use Manage 13:245–250Google Scholar
  47. Kasischke E, Stocks BJ (2000) Introduction. In: Kasischke E, Stocks BJ (eds) Fire, climate change, and carbon cycling in the boreal forest. Ecological studies 138. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 1–6Google Scholar
  48. Kasischke ES, O’Neill KP, French NHF, Bourgeau-Chavez LL (2000) Patterns of biomass burning in Alaskan boreal forests. In: Kasischke E, Stocks BJ (eds) Fire, climate change, and carbon cycling in the boreal forest. Ecological studies 138. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 173–196Google Scholar
  49. Kelly CA, Rudd JWM, Bodaly RA, Roulet NT, St. Louis VL, Heyes A, Moore TR, Schiff S, Aravena R, Scott KJ, Dyck B, Harris R, Warner B, Edwards G (1997) Increases in fluxes of greenhouse gases and methyl mercury following flooding of an experimental reservoir. Environ Sci Technol 31:1334–1344Google Scholar
  50. Koops JG, van Beusichem ML, Oenema O (1997) Nitrogen loss from grassland on peat soils through nitrous oxide production. Plant Soil 188:119–130Google Scholar
  51. Kuhry P (1994) The role of fire in the development of Sphagnum-dominated peatlands in western boreal Canada. J Ecol 82:899–910Google Scholar
  52. Laberge M, Payette S (1995) Long-term monitoring of permafrost change in a palsa peatland in northern Quebec, Canada: 1983–1993. Arct Alp Res 27:157–171Google Scholar
  53. Laine A (2001) Effects of peatland drainage on the size and diet of yearling salmon in a humic northern river. Arch Hydrobiol 151:83–89Google Scholar
  54. Laine J, Silvola J, Tolonen K, Alm J, Nykänen H, Vasander H, Sallantaus T, Savolainen I, Sinisalo J, Martikainen PJ (1996) Effect of water-level drawdown in northern peatlands on the global climatic warming. Ambio 25:179–184Google Scholar
  55. LaRose S, Price J, Rochefort L (1997) Rewetting of a cutover peatland: hydrologic assessment. Wetlands 17:416–423Google Scholar
  56. Lawrey JD (1986) Biological role of lichen substances. Bryologist 89:111–122Google Scholar
  57. Levine JS, Cofer WRI (2000) Boreal forest fire emisions and the chemistry of the atmosphere. In: Kasischke E, Stocks BJ (eds) Fire, climate change, and carbon cycling in the boreal forest. Ecological studies 138. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 31–48Google Scholar
  58. Liblik LK, Moore TR, Bubier JL, Robinson SD (1997) Methane emissions from wetlands in the zone of discontinuous permafrost: Fort Simpson, Northwest Territories, Canada. Global Biogeochem Cycles 11:484–494Google Scholar
  59. Longton RE (1992) The role of bryophytes and lichens in terrestrial ecosystems. In: Bates JW, Farmer AM (eds) Bryophytes and lichens in a changing environment. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 32–76Google Scholar
  60. Lussier JM, Morin H, Gagnon R (2002) Mortality in black spruce stands of fire or clear-cut origin. Can J For Res 32:539–547Google Scholar
  61. Mackay AW, Tallis JH (1996) Summit-type blanket mire erosion in the Forest of Bowland, Lancashire, UK: predisposing factors and implications for conservation. Biol Conserv 76:31–44Google Scholar
  62. Maljanen M, Martikainen PJ, Walden J, Silvola J (2001) CO2 exchange in an organic field growing barley or grass in eastern Finland. Global Change Biol 7:679–692Google Scholar
  63. Maljanen M, Liikanen A, Silvola J, Martikainen PJ (2003) Measuring N2O emissions from organic soils by closed chamber or soil/snow N2O gradient methods. Eur J Soil Sci 54:625–631Google Scholar
  64. Maltby E, Immirzi CP (1993) Carbon dynamics in peatlands and other wetland soils — regional and global perspectives. Chemosphere 27:999–1023Google Scholar
  65. Maltby E, Proctor MCF (1996) Peatlands: their nature and role in the biosphere. International Peat Society and Geological Survey of Finland, Jyska, pp 11–19Google Scholar
  66. Maltby E, Legg CJ, Proctor MCF (1990) The ecology of severe moorland fire on the North York Moors — effects of the 1976 fires, and subsequent surface and vegetation development. J Ecol 78:490–518Google Scholar
  67. Manö S, Andreae MO (1994) Emission of methyl bromide from biomass burning. Science 263:1255–1257Google Scholar
  68. Martikainen PJ, Nykanen H, Alm J, Silvola J (1995) Change in fluxes of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide due to forest drainage of mire sites of different trophy. Plant Soil 169:571–577Google Scholar
  69. McCullough DG, Werner RA, Neumann D (1998) Fire and insects in northern and boreal forest ecosystems of North America. Ann Rev Entomol 43:107–127Google Scholar
  70. McLoughlin PD, Dzus E, Wynes B, Boutin S (2002) Declines in populations of woodland caribou. J Wild Manage 67:755–761Google Scholar
  71. Minkkinen K, Laine J (1998) Long-term effect of forest drainage on the peat carbon stores of pine mires in Finland. Can J For Res 28:1267–1275Google Scholar
  72. Moore TR, Roulet NT, Waddington JM (1998) Uncertainty in predicting the effect of climatic change on the carbon cycling of Canadian peatlands. Clim Change 40:229–245Google Scholar
  73. Morrissey LA, Livingston GP, Zoltai SC (2000) Influence of fire and climate change on patterns of carbon emissions in boreal peatlands. In: Kasischke E, Stocks BJ (eds) Fire, climate change, and carbon cycling in the boreal forest. Ecological studies 138. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 423–439Google Scholar
  74. Naiman RJ, Melillo JM, Hobbie JE (1986) Ecosystem alteration of boreal forest streams by beaver (Castor canadensis). Ecology 67:1254–1269Google Scholar
  75. National Wetlands Working Group (1988) Wetlands of Canada. Ecological land classification series, no 24. Sustainable Development Branch, Environment Canada, Ottawa, and Polyscience, MontrealGoogle Scholar
  76. Nieuwenhuis HS, Schokking F (1997) Land subsidence in drained peat areas of the Province of Friesland, The Netherlands. Q J Eng Geol 30:37–48Google Scholar
  77. Nummi P, Poysa H (1997) Population and community level responses in Anasspecies to patch disturbance caused by an ecosystem engineer, the beaver. Ecography 20:580–584Google Scholar
  78. Ostaff DP, MacLean DA (1989) Spruce budworm populations, defoliation, and changes in stand condition during an uncontrolled spruce budworm outbreak on Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia. Can J For Res 19:1077–1086Google Scholar
  79. Pickett STA, White PS (eds) (1985) The ecology of natural disturbance and patch dynamics. Academic, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  80. Pickett STA, Amesto JJ, Collins SL (1989) The ecological concept of disturbance and its expression at various hierarchical levels. Oikos 54:129–136Google Scholar
  81. Podur J, Martell DL, Knight K (2002) Statistical quality control analysis of forest fire activity in Canada. Can J For Res 32:195–205Google Scholar
  82. Press MC, Woodin SJ, Lee JA (1986) The potential importance of an increased atmospheric nitrogen supply to the growth of ombrotrophic Sphagnum species. New Phytol 103:45–55Google Scholar
  83. Press MC, Potter JA, Burke MJW, Callaghan TV, Lee JA (1998) Responses of a subarctic dwarf shrub heath community to simulated environmental change. J Ecol 86:315–327Google Scholar
  84. Price JS, Whitehead GS (2001) Developing hydrologic thresholds for Sphagnum recolonization on an abandoned cutover bog. Wetlands 21:32–40Google Scholar
  85. Price JS, Heathwaite AL, Baird AJ (2003) Hydrological processes in abandoned and restored peatlands: an overview of management approaches. Wetlands Ecol Manage 11:65–83Google Scholar
  86. Proe MF, Allison SM, Matthews KB (1996) Assessment of the impact of climate change on the growth of Sitka spruce in Scotland. Can J For Res 26:1914–1921Google Scholar
  87. Regina K, Nykanen H, Maljanen M, Silvola J, Martikainen PJ (1998) Emissions of N2O and NO and net nitrogen mineralization in a boreal forested peatland treated with different nitrogen compounds. Can J For Res 28:132–140Google Scholar
  88. Rettie WJ, Messier F (2000) Hierarchical habitat selection by woodland caribou: its relationship to limiting factors. Ecography 23:466–478Google Scholar
  89. Ritchie JC (1987) Postglacial vegetation of Canada. Cambridge University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  90. Robinson SD, Moore TR (2000) The influence of permafrost and fire upon carbon accumulation in high boreal peatlands, Northwest Territories, Canada. Arct Antarct Alp Res 32:155–166Google Scholar
  91. Rochefort L (2000) Sphagnum — a keystone genus in habitat restoration. Bryologist 103:503–508Google Scholar
  92. Roulet NT, Ash R, Moore TR (1992) Low boreal wetlands as a source of atmospheric methane. J Geophys Res 97:3739–3749Google Scholar
  93. Roulet NT, Crill PM, Comer NT, Dove AE, Bourbonniere RA (1997) CO2 and CH4 flux between a boreal beaver pond and the atmosphere. J Geophys Res 102:29313–29319Google Scholar
  94. Ruckauf U, Augustin J, Russow R, Merbach W (2004) Nitrate removal from drained and reflooded fen soils affected by soil N transformation processes and plant uptake. Soil Biol Biochem 36:77–90Google Scholar
  95. Saarnio S, Silvola J (1999) The effects of raised CO2 and N supply on CH4 efflux from a boreal peat: a growth cabin experiment. Oecologia 119:349–356Google Scholar
  96. Saarnio S, Saarinen T, Vasander H, Silvola J (2000) A moderate increase in the annual CH4 efflux by raised CO2 or NH4NO3 supply in a boreal oligotrophic mire. Global Change Biol 6:137–144Google Scholar
  97. Sarkkola S, Alenius V, Hökkä H, Laiho R, Päivänen J, Penttilä T (2003) Changes in structural inequality in Norway spruce stands on peatland sites after water-level drawdown. Can J For Res 33:222–23Google Scholar
  98. Schothorst CJ (1977) Subsidence of low moor peat soils in the western Netherlands. Geoderma 17:265–291Google Scholar
  99. Segerstrom U (1997) Long-term dynamics of vegetation and disturbance of a southern boreal spruce forest. J Veg Sci 8:295–306Google Scholar
  100. Segerstrom U, Emanuelsson M (2002) Extensive forest grazing and hay-making on mires — vegetation changes in south-central Sweden due to land use since Medieval times. Veg Hist Archaeobot 11:181–190Google Scholar
  101. Silvola J (1986) Carbon dioxide dynamics in mires reclaimed for forestry in eastern Finland. Ann Bot Fenn 23:59–67Google Scholar
  102. Slack NG (1988) The ecological importance of lichens and bryophytes. In: Nash TH III (ed) Lichens, bryophytes and air quality. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 30. Cramer, Berlin, pp 1–53Google Scholar
  103. Smith KA, Ball T, Conen F, Dobbie KE, Massheder J, Rey A (2003) Exchange of greenhouse gases between soil and atmosphere: interactions of soil physical factors and biological processes. Eur J Soil Sci 54:779–791Google Scholar
  104. St Louis V, Kelly CA, Duchemin E, Rudd JWM, Rosenberg DM (2000) Reservoir surfaces as sources of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere: a global estimate. Bio-Science 50:766–775Google Scholar
  105. Stocks BJ, Kaufman JB (1997) Biomass consumption and behavior of wildland fires in boreal, temperate, and tropical ecosystems: parameters necessary to interpret historic fire regimes and future fire scenarios. In: Clark JS, Cachier H, Gold ammer JG, Stocks BJ (eds) Sediment records of biomass burning and global change. NATO ASI series 151, Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 169–188Google Scholar
  106. Stocks BJ, Mason JA, Todd JB, Bosch EM, Wotton BM, Amiro BD, Flannigan MD, Hirsch KG, Logan KA, Martell DL, Skinner WR (2003) Large forest fires in Canada, 1959–1997. J Geophys Res. DOI 10.1029/2001JD000484Google Scholar
  107. Strack M, Waddington JM, Tuittila E-S, Kellner E, Price JS, Rochefort L (2003) Methane emissions and storage at a natural and drained peatland fen in central Québec. Järvet E, Lode E. (eds) Proceedings of the international conference on ecohydrological processes in northern wetlands. Tartu University Press, Tallinn, pp 227–232Google Scholar
  108. Strack M, Waddington JM, Tuittila E-S (2004) The effect of water table drawdown on northern peatland methane dynamics: Implications for climate change. Global Biogeochem Cycles 18. DOI 10.1029/2003GB002209Google Scholar
  109. Thormann MN, Bayley SE (1997) Response of aboveground net primary plant production to nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization in peatlands in southern boreal Alberta, Canada. Wetlands 17:502–512Google Scholar
  110. Tiner RW (1984) Wetlands of the United States: current status and recent trends. US Fish and Wildlife Service, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  111. Tolonen M (1985) Paleoecological record of local fire history from a peat deposit in SW Finland. Ann Bot Fenn 22:15–29Google Scholar
  112. Turetsky MR (2004) Decomposition and organic matter quality in peatlands. Ecosystems 7:740–750Google Scholar
  113. Turetsky MR, Wieder RK, Williams CJ, Vitt DH (2000) Organic matter accumulation, peat chemistry, and permafrost melting in peatlands of boreal Alberta. écoscience 7:379–392Google Scholar
  114. Turetsky MR, Wieder RK, Halsey LA, Vitt. DH (2002a) Current disturbance and the diminishing peatland carbon sink. Geophys Res Lett 29. DOI 10.1029/2001 GL014000Google Scholar
  115. Turetsky MR, Wieder RK, Vitt DH (2002b) Boreal peatland C fluxes under varying permafrost regimes. Soil Biol Biochem 34:907–912Google Scholar
  116. Turetsky MR, Amiro BD, Bosch E, Bhatti, JS (2004) Historical burn area in western Canadian peatlands and its relationship to fire weather indices. Global Biogeochem Cycles 18:GB4014. DOI 10.1029/2004GB002222Google Scholar
  117. Turunen J, Tahvanainen T, Tolonen K, Pitkanen A (2001) Carbon accumulation in west Siberian mires, Russia. Global Biogeochem Cycles 15:285–296Google Scholar
  118. Van Cleve K, Viereck LA, Dryness CT (1996) State factor control of soils and forest succession along the Tanana River in interior Alaska, USA. Arct Alp Res 28:388–400Google Scholar
  119. Vile MA, Bridgham SD, Wieder RK, Novák M (2003) Atmospheric sulfur deposition alters gaseous carbon production from peatlands. Global Biogeochem Cycles 17:1058Google Scholar
  120. Vitt D, Halsey L, Zoltai S (1994) The bog landforms of continental western Canada in relation to climate and permafrost patterns. Arct Alp Res 26:1–13Google Scholar
  121. Vitt DH, Halsey LA, Zoltai SC (2000) The changing landscape of Canada’s western boreal forest: the current dynamics of permafrost. Can J For Res 30:283–287Google Scholar
  122. Vitt DH, Wieder RK, Halsey LA, Turetsky MR (2003) Response of Sphagnum fuscum to nitrogen deposition: a case study of ombrogenous peatlands in Alberta, Canada. Bryologist 106:235–245Google Scholar
  123. Volney WJA, Fleming RA (2002) Climate change and impacts of boreal forest insects. Agric Ecosyst Environ 82:283–294Google Scholar
  124. Vuori K-M, Joensuu I, Latvala J, Jutila E, Ahvonen A (1998) Forest drainage: a threat to benthic biodiversity of boreal headwater streams? Aquat Conserv Mar Freshwater Ecosyst 8:745–759Google Scholar
  125. Waddington JM, Price JS (2000) Effect of peatland drainage, harvesting, and restoration on atmospheric water and carbon exchange. Phys Geogr 21:433–451Google Scholar
  126. Waddington JM, Warner KD, Kennedy G (2002) Cutover peatlands: a persistent source of atmospheric CO2. Global Biogeochem Cycles. DOI 10.1029/2001 GB001398Google Scholar
  127. Waddington JM, Campeau S, Rochefort L (2003) Sphagnum production and decomposition in a restored peatland. Wetland Ecol Manage 11:85–95Google Scholar
  128. Walker LR, Zimmerman JK, Lodge DJ, Guzman-Grajales S (1996) An altitudinal comparison of growth and species composition in hurricane damaged forests in Puerto Rico. J Ecol 84:877–889Google Scholar
  129. Wang Z, Delaune RD, Lindau CW, Patrick WH (1992) Methane production from anaerobic soil amended with rice straw and nitrogen fertilizers. Fert Res 33:115–121Google Scholar
  130. Watson RT, Noble IR, Bolin B, Ravindranath NH, Verardo DJ, Dokken DJ (eds) (2000) Land use, land-use change, and forestry 2000. Special report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change, Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  131. Weber UM, Schweingruber FH (1995) A dendroecological reconstruction of western budworm outbreaks (Choristoneura occidentalis) in the Front Range, Colorado, from 1720 to 1986. Trees 9:204–213Google Scholar
  132. Wieder RK, Lang GE (1986) Fe, Al, Mn, and S chemistry of Sphagnum peat in four peatlands with different metal and sulfur input. Water Air Soil Pollut 29:309–320Google Scholar
  133. Willison TW, Baker JC, Murphy DV (1998) Methane fluxes and nitrogen dynamics from a drained fenland peat. Biol Fertil Soil 27:279–283Google Scholar
  134. Winfrey MR, Zeikus JG (1977) Effect of sulfate on carbon and electron flow during microbial methanogenesis in freshwater sediments. Appl Environ Microbiol 275–281Google Scholar
  135. Wright JP, Jones CG, Flecker AS (2002) An ecosystem engineer, the beaver, increases species richness at the landscape scale. Oecologia 132:96–101Google Scholar
  136. Zackrisson O (1977) Influence of forest fires on the north Swedish boreal forest. Oikos 29:22–32Google Scholar
  137. Zhao K, Päivänen J (1986) Peatlands and their utilization in northeast China. Suo 37:57–65Google Scholar
  138. Zoltai SC, Morrissey LA, Livingston GP, de Groot WJ (1998) Effects of fire on carbon cycling in North American boreal peatlands. Environ Rev 6:13–24Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Merritt R. Turetsky
    • 1
  • Vincent L. St. Louis
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Plant Biology, Department of Fisheries and WildlifeMichigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA
  2. 2.Department of Biological SciencesUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada

Personalised recommendations