Forestry and Boreal Peatlands

  • Jukka Laine
  • Raija Laiho
  • Kari Minkkinen
  • Harri Vasander
Part of the Ecological Studies book series (ECOLSTUD, volume 188)


Tree Stand Water Table Level Surface Peat Peatland Ecosystem Northern Peatlands 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aapala K, Lindholm T (1999) Suojelusoiden ekologinen rajaaminen (Abstract: Ecological evaluation of the boundaries of protected peatlands). Metsähallituksen luonnonsuojelujulkaisuja. Series A 95. Metsähallitus, VantaaGoogle Scholar
  2. Aapala K, Heikkilä R, Lindholm T (1996) Protecting the diversity of Finnish peatlands. In: Vasander H (ed) Peatlands in Finland. Finnish Peatland Society, Jyväskylä, pp 45–57Google Scholar
  3. Ahtiainen M (1988) Effects of clear-cutting and forestry drainage on water quality in the Nurmes-study. Proceedings of the international symposium on the hydrology of wetlands in temperate and cold regions, Joensuu, Finland, pp 206–219Google Scholar
  4. Belair JL (1991) Low hydraulic conductivity in catotelm limits effectiveness of drainage. In: Jeglum J K, Overend R P (eds) Proceedings of the symposium ′89-peat and peatlands diversification and innovation, vol 1. Peatland forestry. The Canadian Society for Peat and Peatlands, pp 141–145Google Scholar
  5. Bergquist B, Lundin L, Andersson A (1984) Hydrologiska och limnologiska konsekvenser av skogs-och myrdikning. Sicksjöbäckområdet. Uppsala universitet limnologiska institutionen forskningsrapport 8:1–140Google Scholar
  6. Boelter DH (1964) Water storage characteristics of several peats in situ. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 28:433–435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Boggie R (1977) Water-table depth and oxygen content of deep peat in relation to root growth of Pinus contorta. Plant Soil 48:447–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Braekke FH, Finer L (1991) Fertilization effects on surface peat of pine bogs. Scand J For Res 6:433–449Google Scholar
  9. Bubier J (1995) The relationship of vegetation to methane emission and hydrochemical gradients in northern peatlands. J Ecol 83:403–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Campbell D, Rochefort L (2003) Germination and seedling growth of bog plants in relation to the recolonization of milled peatlands. Plant Ecol 169:71–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chmielewski K (1991) The effect of habitat conditions on microbiological activity of peat soils. Pol Ecol Stud 17:143–153Google Scholar
  12. De Vries W, Breeuwsma A (1987) The relation between soil acidification and element cycling. Water Air Soil Pollut 35:293–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Domisch T, Finér L, Laiho R, Karsisto M, Laine J (2000) Decomposition of Scots pine litter and the fate of released carbon in pristine and drained pine peatlands. Soil Biol Biochem 32:1571–1580CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Eurola S (1968) Über die ökologie der nordfinnischen Moorvegetation im Herbst Winter und Frühling. Ann Bot Fenn 5:83–97Google Scholar
  15. Eurola S (1975) Snow and ground frost conditions of some Finnish peatland types. Ann Bot Fenn 12:1–16Google Scholar
  16. Finér L (1989) Biomass and nutrient cycle in fertilized and unfertilized pine mixed birch and spruce stands on a drained peatland. Acta For Fenn 208:1–63Google Scholar
  17. Finnish Forest and Park Service (1999) The principles of protected area management in Finland, guidelines on the aims, function and management of stateowned protected areas. Nat Prot Publ Ser B 54Google Scholar
  18. Glenn S, Heyes A, Moore T (1993) Carbon dioxide and methane emissions from drained peatland soils, southern Quebec. Global Biogeochem Cycles 7:247–258Google Scholar
  19. Gorham E (1991) Northern peatlands: role in the carbon cycle and probable responses to climatic warming. Ecol Appl 1:182–195Google Scholar
  20. Gustafsson M (2001) Carbon loss after forest drainage of three peatlands in southern Sweden. Masters thesis, Department of Forest Soils, SLU, UppsalaGoogle Scholar
  21. Hargreaves KJ, Milne R, Cannell MGR (2003) Carbon balance of afforested peatland in Scotland. Forestry 76:299–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Heikkilä H, Lindholm T (1995) The basis of peatland restoration in Finland. In: Wheeler BD, Shaw SC, Fojt WJ, Robertson RA (eds) Restoration of temperate wetlands. Wiley, Chichester, pp 548–556Google Scholar
  23. Heikkilä H, Lindholm T (1996) Metsäojitettujen soiden ennallistamisopas, 2nd edn. Metsähallituksen luonnonsuojelujulkaisuja. Series B 25. Metsähallitus, VantaaGoogle Scholar
  24. Heikkilä H, Lindholm T (1997) Soiden ennallistamistutkimus vuosina 1987–1996 (Abstract: The peatland restoration study from 1987 to 1996). Metsähallituksen luonnonsuojelujulkaisuja. Series A 81. Metsähallitus, VantaaGoogle Scholar
  25. Heikurainen L (1967) On the possibilities of optimum drainage in peat lands. 14th IUFRO Congr Pap 4:264–277Google Scholar
  26. Heikurainen L, Seppälä K (1973) Ojitusalueiden puuston kasvun jatkumisesta ja alueellisuudesta (Summary: Regionality and continuity of stand growth in old forest drainage areas). Acta For Fenn 132:1–36Google Scholar
  27. Heikurainen L, Kenttämies K, Laine J (1978) The environmental effects of forest drainage. Suo 29:49–58Google Scholar
  28. Hobbie SE (1996). Temperature and plant species control over litter decomposition in Alaskan tundra. Ecol Monogr 66:503–522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hogg EH, Lieffers VJ, Wein RW (1992). Potential carbon losses from peat profiles: effects of temperature, drought cycles, and fire. Ecol Appl 2:298–306Google Scholar
  30. Hökkä H, Penttilä T, Siipola M (1997). Relationships between groundwater level and temperature in peat. In: Trettin CC, Jurgensen MF, Gale MR, Jeglum JK (eds) Northern forested wetlands: ecology and management. CRC, Boca Raton, pp 287–296Google Scholar
  31. Holmen H (1964) Forest ecological studies on drained peatland in the province of Uppland, Sweden. Stud For Suec 16:1–236Google Scholar
  32. Hörnberg G, Ohlson M, Zackrisson O (1997) Influence of bryophytes and microrelief conditions on Picea abies seed regeneration patterns in boreal old-growth swamp forests. Can J For Res 27:1015–1023CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hyvönen R, Olsson BA, Lundkvist H, Staaf H (2000) Decomposition and nutrient release from Picea abies (L.) Karst. and Pinus sylvestris (L.) logging residues. For Ecol Manage 126: 97–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2001) Climate change 2001: the scientific basis. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  35. Ivarson KC (1977) Changes in decomposition rate, microbial population and carbohydrate content of an acid peat bog after liming and reclamation. Can J Soil Sci 57:129–137Google Scholar
  36. Jauhiainen S, Laiho R, Vasander H (2002) Ecohydrological and vegetational changes in a restored bog and fen. Ann Bot Fenn 39:185–199Google Scholar
  37. Jeglum JK (1974) Relative influence of moisture-aeration and nutrients on vegetation and black spruce growth in northern Ontario. Can J For Res 4:114–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Karsisto M (1979) Maanparannustoimenpiteiden vaikutuksista orgaanista ainetta hajottavien mikrobien aktiivisuuteen suometsissä. Osa I Pohjaveden etäisyyden ja NPK-lannoituksen vaikutus Vilppulan ja Kivalon rämeellä ja korvessa (Summary: Effect of forest improvement measures on activity of organic matter decomposing micro-organisms in forested peatlands. Part I. Effect of drainage and NPK fertilization in the spruce and pine swamps at Kivalo and Vilppula). Suo 30:49–58Google Scholar
  39. Karsisto M, Varjola I, Kitunen V, Domisch T (1996) Decomposition of mosses in different peats. In: Laiho R, Laine J, Vasander H (eds) Northern peatlands in global climatic change. Edita, Helsinki, pp 47–53Google Scholar
  40. Karsisto M, Kitunen V, Laine J (2003) Peatland as buffer zone in a constructed overland flow area. In: Järvet A, Lode E (eds) Ecohydrological processes in northern wetland, Tartu University Press, Tartu, pp 290–293Google Scholar
  41. Kaunisto S, Paavilainen E (1988) Nutrient stores in old drainage areas and growth of stands. Commun Inst For Fenn 145:1–39Google Scholar
  42. Keltikangas M, Laine J, Puttonen P, Seppälä K (1986) Vuosina 1930–1978 metsäojitetut suot: ojitusalueiden inventoinnin tuloksia. (Summary: Peatlands drained for forestry during 1930–1978: results from field surveys of drained areas). Acta For Fenn 193:1–94Google Scholar
  43. Kuuluvainen T (1994) Gap disturbance, ground microtopography, and the regeneration dynamics of boreal coniferous forests in Finland, a review. Ann Zool Fenn 31:35–51Google Scholar
  44. Kuuluvainen T, Aapala K, Ahlroth P, Kuusinen M, Lindholm T, Sallantaus T, Siitonen J, Tukia H (2002) Principles of ecological restoration of boreal forested ecosystems: Finland as an example. Silva Fenn 36: 409–422Google Scholar
  45. Lähde E (1969) Biological activity in some natural and drained peat soils with special reference to oxidation-reduction conditions. Acta For Fenn 94:1–69Google Scholar
  46. Lähde E (1971) Anaerobisten olosuhteiden ja aerobisuusrajan esiintymisestä erilaisilla luonnontilaisilla turvemailla ja merkityksestä suotyypin kuvaajana (Summary: On anaerobic conditions in various virgin peat soils and the significance of the aerobic limit as an indicator of site quality). Silva Fenn 5:36–48.Google Scholar
  47. Laiho R (1996) Changes in understorey biomass and species composition after water-level drawdown on pine peatlands in southern Finland. Suo 47:59–69Google Scholar
  48. Laiho R, Laine J (1990) Post-drainage nutrient stores in peat. In: Hånell B (ed) Biomass production and element fluxes in forested peatland ecosystems. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, pp 81–91Google Scholar
  49. Laiho R, Laine J (1992) Effect of forest drainage on soil frost conditions. In: Bragg OM, Hulme PD, Ingram HAP, Robertson RA (eds) Peatland ecosystems and man: an impact assessment. Department of Biological Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee, pp 149–152Google Scholar
  50. Laiho R, Laine J (1994) Nitrogen and phosphorus stores in peatlands drained for forestry in Finland. Scand J For Res 9:251–260Google Scholar
  51. Laiho R, Laine J (1995) Changes in mineral element concentrations in peat soils drained for forestry in Finland. Scand J For Res 10:218–224Google Scholar
  52. Laiho R, Laine J (1997) Tree stand biomass and carbon content in an age sequence of drained pine peatlands in southern Finland. For Ecol Manage 93:161–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Laiho R, Prescott CE (1999) The contribution of coarse woody debris to carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus cycles in three Rocky Mountain coniferous forests. Can J For Res 29:1592–1603.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Laiho R, Sallantaus T, Laine J (1999) The effect of forestry drainage on vertical distributions of major plant nutrients in peat soils. Plant Soil 207:169–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Laiho R, Vasander H, Penttilä T, Laine J (2003) Dynamics of plant-mediated organic matter and nutrient cycling following long-term water-level drawdown in boreal peatlands. Global Biogeochem Cycles 17:1053. DOI 10 1029/2002GB002015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Laiho R, Laine J, Trettin CC, Finér L (2004) Scots pine litter decomposition along soil moisture and nutrient gradients in peatland forests, and the effects of interannual weather variation. Soil Biol Biochem 36:1095–1109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Laine J, Vanha-Majamaa I (1992) Vegetation ecology along a trophic gradient on drained pine peatlands in southern Finland. Ann Bot Fenn 29:213–233Google Scholar
  58. Laine J, Vasander H, Sallantaus T (1995a) Ecological effects of peatland drainage for forestry. Environ Rev 3:286–303Google Scholar
  59. Laine J, Vasander H, Laiho R (1995b) Long-term effects of water level drawdown on the vegetation of drained pine peatlands in southern Finland. J Appl Ecol 32:785–802CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Laine J, Silvola J, Tolonen K, Alm J, Nykänen H, Vasander H, Sallantaus T, Savolainen I, Sinisalo J, Martikainen PJ (1996) Effect of water level drawdown in northern peatlands on the global climatic warming. Ambio 25:179–184Google Scholar
  61. Lees JC (1972) Soil aeration response to draining intensity in basin peat. J Soc For 45:135–143Google Scholar
  62. Lieffers VJ (1988) Sphagnum and cellulose decomposition in drained and natural areas of an Alberta peatland. Can J Soil Sci 68:755–761Google Scholar
  63. Lieffers VJ, Rothwell RL (1987) Effects of drainage on substrate temperature and phenology of some trees and shrubs in an Alberta peatland. Can J For Res 17:97–104.Google Scholar
  64. Lien T, Martikainen PJ, Nykänen H, Bakken L (1992) Methane oxidation and methane fluxes in two drained peat soils. Suo 43:231–236Google Scholar
  65. Lukkala OJ (1949) Soiden turvekerroksen painuminen ojituksen vaikutuksesta (Referat: Über die Setzung des Moortorfes als Folge der Entwässerung). Commun Inst For Fenn 37:1–67Google Scholar
  66. Lundberg G (1926) Drainage of swamp lands for forestry purposes. J For 24:19–37Google Scholar
  67. Lundin L, Bergquist B (1990) Effects on water chemistry after drainage of a bog for forestry. Hydrobiologia 196:167–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. MacDonald SE, Yin F (1999) Factors influencing size inequality in peatland black spruce and tamarack: evidence from post-drainage release growth. J Ecol 87:404–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Martikainen PJ, Nykänen H, Crill P, Silvola J (1993) Effect of a lowered water table on nitrous oxide fluxes from northern peatlands. Nature 366:51–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Martikainen PJ, Nykänen H, Alm J, Silvola J (1995) Change in fluxes of carbon dioxide methane and nitrous oxide due to forest drainage of peatland sires of different trophy. Plant Soil 168–169:571–577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Mikkelä C, Sundh I, Svensson BH, Nilsson M (1995) Diurnal variation in methane emission in relation to the water table soil temperature climate and vegetation cover in a Swedish acid peatland. Biogeochemistry 28:93–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Minkkinen K, Laine J (1998a) Long-term effect of forest drainage on the peat carbon stores of pine peatlands in Finland. Can J For Res 28:1267–1275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Minkkinen K, Laine J (1998b) Effect of forest drainage on the peat bulk density of pine peatlands in Finland. Can J For Res 28:178–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Minkkinen K, Laine J, Nykänen H, Martikainen PJ (1997) Importance of drainage ditches in emissions of methane from peatlands drained for forestry. Can J For Res 27:949–952CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Minkkinen K, Vasander H, Jauhiainen S, Karsisto M, Laine J (1999) Post-drainage changes in vegetation composition and carbon balance in Lakkasuo peatland, central Finland. Plant Soil 207:107–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Minkkinen K, Laine J, Hökkä H (2001) Tree stand development and carbon sequestration in drained peatland stands in Finland — a simulation study. Silva Fenn 35:55–69Google Scholar
  77. Minkkinen K, Korhonen R, Savolainen I, Laine J (2002) Carbon balance and radiative forcing of Finnish peatlands 1900–2100 — the impact of forestry drainage. Global Change Biol 8:785–799CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Moore TR, Dalva M (1993) The influence of temperature and water table position on carbon dioxide and methane emissions from laboratory columns of peatland soils. J Soil Sci 44:651–664CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Mugasha AG, Pluth DJ, Hillman GR (1993) Foliar responses of tamarack and black spruce to drainage and fertilization of a minerotrophic peatland. Can J For Res 23:166–180Google Scholar
  80. Nykänen H, Alm J, Silvola J, Tolonen K, Martikainen PJ (1998) Methane fluxes on boreal peatlands of different fertility and the effect of long-term experimental lowering of the water table on flux rates. Global Biogeochem Cycles 12:53–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Paarlahti K, Vartiovaara U (1958) Havaintoja luonnontilaisten ja metsäojitettujen soiden pieneliöstöistä (Summary: Observations concerning the microbial populations in virgin and drained bogs). Commun Inst For Fenn 50: 1–38Google Scholar
  82. Paavilainen E (1980). Effect of fertilization on plant biomass and nutrient cycle on a drained dwarf shrub pine swamp. Commun Inst For Fenn 98:1–71Google Scholar
  83. Paavilainen E, Päivänen J (1995) Peatland forestry — ecology and principles. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  84. Päivänen J (1973) Hydraulic conductivity and water retention in peat soils. Acta For Fenn 129:1–70Google Scholar
  85. Pfadenhauer J, Klötzli F (1996) Restoration experiments in middle European wet terrestrial ecosystems: an overview. Vegetatio 126:101–115Google Scholar
  86. Plamondon AP, Belleau P (1991) Estimation of the hydraulic conductivity of peat from bulk density and von Post decomposition. In: Jeglum JK, Overend RP (eds) Proceedings of the symposium ′89-peat and peatlands diversification and innovation, vol 1. Peatland forestry. The Canadian Society for Peat and Peatlands, Quebec City, pp 146–152Google Scholar
  87. Prescott CE, Zabek LM, Staley CL, Kabzems R (2000) Decomposition of broadleaf and needle litter in forests of British Columbia: influences of litter type, forest type, and litter mixtures. Can J For Res 30:1742–1750CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Priha O, Smolander A (1997) Microbial biomass and activity in soil and litter under Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies and Betula pendula at originally similar field afforestation sites. Biol Fertil Soils 24:45–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Priha O, Grayston SJ, Hiukka R, Pennanen T, Smolander A (2001) Microbial community structure and characteristics of the organic matter in soils under Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies and Betula pendula at two forest sites. Biol Fertil Soils 33:17–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Rassi P, Aapala K, Suikki A, Ahti E, Eerola L, Kouki j, Kurikka T, Kuuluvainen T, Kuusinen M, Lindholm T, Merisaari H, Virolainen E (2003) Restoration in protected areas: report by the working group on restoration (in Finnish). Finn Environ 618:1–220Google Scholar
  91. Regina K, Nykänen H, Silvola J, Martikainen PJ (1996) Fluxes of nitrous oxide from boreal peatlands as affected by peatland type, water table level and nitrification capacity. Biogeochemistry 35 401–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Regina K, Nykänen H, Maljanen M, Silvola J, Martikainen PJ (1998) Emissions of N2O and NO and net nitrogen mineralization in a boreal forested peatland treated with different nitrogen compounds. Can J For Res 28:132–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Reinikainen A (1981) Metsänparannustoimenpiteiden vaikutuksesta suoekosysteemien kasvibiomassaan ja perustuotantoon (Summary: Effect of drainage and fertilization on plant biomass and primary production). Suo 32:110–113Google Scholar
  94. Reinikainen A, Vasander H, Lindholm T (1984) Plant biomass and primary production of southern boreal peatland-ecosystems in Finland. In: Proceedings of the 7th international peat congress, Dublin, Ireland IV. The Irish National Peat Committee/International Peat Society, Dublin, pp. 1–20Google Scholar
  95. Rochefort L (2001) Restauration écologique. In: Payette S, Rochefort L (eds), Écologie des tourbières du Québec-Labrador, Les Presses de l’Université Laval, Sainte-Foy, pp 449–504Google Scholar
  96. Rothwell RL (1991) Substrate environments on drained and undrained peatlands Wally Creek experimental drainage area Cochrane Ontario. In: Jeglum JK, Overend RP (eds) Proceedings of the symposium ′89-peat and peatlands diversification and innovation, vol 1. Peatland forestry. The Canadian Society for Peat and Peatlands, pp 103–108Google Scholar
  97. Roulet NT, Moore TR (1995) The effect of forestry drainage practices on the emission of methane from northern peatlands. Can J For Res 25:491–499Google Scholar
  98. Roulet NT, Ash R, Quinton W, Moore T (1993) Methane flux from drained northern peatlands: Effect of a persistent water table lowering on flux. Global Biogeochem Cycles 7:749–769CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Rycroft DW, Williams DJA, Ingram HAP (1975) The transmission of water through peat II: field experiments. J Ecol 63:557–568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Sakovets VV, Germanova NI (1992) Changes in the carbon balance of forested peatlands in Karelia due to drainage. Suo 43:249–252Google Scholar
  101. Sallantaus T (1992) Leaching in the material balance of peatlands — preliminary results. Suo 43: 253–358Google Scholar
  102. Sallantaus T (1994) Response of leaching from mire ecosystems to changing climate. In: Kanninen M (ed) The Finnish Research Programme on Climate Change. Second progress report. The Academy of Finland, Helsinki, pp 291–296Google Scholar
  103. Sallantaus T (1999) Seitsemisen soiden hydrologinen seuranta (Hydrological monitoring in the peatlands of Seitseminen National Park). Subreport of the project: restoration of active raised bogs, aapapeatlands and bog woodland in Natura 2000 sites. Life project B4-3200/96/542Google Scholar
  104. Sallantaus T, Vasander H, Laine J (1998) Metsätalouden vesistöhaittojen torjuminen ojitetuista soista muodostettujen puskurivyöhykkeiden avulla. (Summary: Prevention of detrimental impacts of forestry operations on water bodies using buffer zones created from drained peatlands). Suo 49:125–133Google Scholar
  105. Sallantaus T, Kondelin H, Heikkilä R (2003) Hydrological problems associated with peatland restoration. In: Heikkilä R, Lindholm T (eds) Biodiversity and conservation of boreal nature. Finn Environ 485:256–261Google Scholar
  106. Sarkkola S, Alenius V, Hökkä H, Laiho R, Päivänen J, Penttilä T (2003) Changes in structural inequality in Norway spruce stands on peatland sites after water-level drawdown. Can J For Res 33:222–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Sarkkola S, Hökkä H, Laiho R, Päivänen J, Penttilä T (2005) Stand structural dynamics on drained peatlands dominated by Scots pine. For Ecol Manage 206:135–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Schauffler M, Jacobson GL, Pugh AL, Norton SA (1996) Influence of vegetational structure on capture of salt and nutrient aerosols in a Maine peatland. Ecol Appl 6:263–268Google Scholar
  109. Seppä H, Lindholm T, Vasander H (1993) Rehabilitation of peatlands drained for forestry. Metsähallituksen luonnonsuojelujulkaisuja. Series A 7. Metsähallitus, Vantaa (in Finnish)Google Scholar
  110. Seppälä K (1969) Kuusen ja männyn kasvun kehitys ojitetuilla turvemailla (Postdrainage growth rate of Norway spruce and Scots pine on peat). Acta For Fenn 93:1–89Google Scholar
  111. Seuna P (1981) Long-term influence of forestry drainage on the hydrology of an open bog in Finland. Publ Water Res Inst 43:3–14Google Scholar
  112. Seuna P (1988) Effects of clear-cutting and forestry drainage on runoff in the Nurmes-study. Proceedings of the international symposium on the hydrology of wetlands in temperate and cold regions, Joensuu, Finland. pp 122–134Google Scholar
  113. Silins U, Rothwell RL (1998) Forest peatland drainage and subsidence affect soil water retention and transport properties in an Alberta peatland. Soil Sci Soc Am J 62:1048–1056CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Silins U, Rothwell RL (1999) Spatial patterns of aerobic limit depth and oxygen diffusion rate at two peatlands drained for forestry in Alberta. Can J For Res 29:53–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Silvan N, Regina K, Kitunen V, Vasander H, Laine J (2002) Gaseous nitrogen loss from a restored peatland buffer zone. Soil Biol Biochem 34:721–728CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Silvan N, Vasander H, Karsisto M, Laine J (2003) Microbial immobilisation of added nitrogen and phosphorus in constructed wetland buffer. Appl Soil Ecol 24:143–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Silvan N, Vasander H, Laine J (2004) Vegetation is the main factor in nutrient retention in a constructed wetland buffer. Plant Soil 258:179–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Silvola J (1986) Carbon dioxide dynamics in peatlands reclaimed for forestry in eastern Finland. Ann Bot Fenn 23:59–67Google Scholar
  119. Silvola J, Alm J, Ahlholm U (1992) The effect of plant roots on CO2 release from peat soil. Suo 43:259–262Google Scholar
  120. Silvola J, Alm J, Ahlholm U, Nykänen H, Martikainen PJ (1996) CO2 fluxes from peat in boreal peatlands under varying temperature and moisture conditions. J Ecol 84:219–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Sinisalo J (1998) Estimation of greenhouse impacts of continuous regional emissions. VTT publication 338. Technical Research Centre of Finland, EspooGoogle Scholar
  122. Sliva J, Pfadenhauer J (1999) Restoration of cut-over raised bogs in southern Germany — a comparison of methods. Appl Veg Sci 2: 37–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Soro A, Sundberg S, Rydin H (1999) Species diversity, niche metrics and species associations in harvested and undisturbed bogs. J Veg Sci 10:549–560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Soveri J, Varjo M (1977) Roudan muodostumisesta ja esiintymisestä Suomessa vuosina 1955–1975 (Summary: On the formation and occurrence of soil frost in Finland 1955 to 1975). Publ Water Res Inst 20:1–66Google Scholar
  125. Ström L, Ekberg A, Mastepanov M, Christensen TR (2003) The effect of vascular plants on carbon turnover and methane emissions from a tundra wetland. Global Change Biol 9:1185–1192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Swanson LE, Rothwell RL (1989) Substrate freeze-thaw in a drained Alberta fen. Can J For Res 19:1024–1029Google Scholar
  127. Szumigalski AR, Bayley SE (1996) Decomposition along a bog to rich fen gradient in central Alberta, Canada. Can J Bot 74:573–581CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Tanttu A (1915) Tutkimuksia ojitettujen soiden metsittymisestä (Referat: Studien über Aufforstungsfähigkeit der entwässerten Moore). Acta For Fenn 5:1–211Google Scholar
  129. Taylor BR, Prescott CE, Parsons WJF, Parkinson D (1991) Substrate control of litter decomposition in four Rocky Mountain coniferous forests. Can J Bot 69:2242–2250Google Scholar
  130. Thormann MN, Bayley SE, Currah RS (2001) Comparison of decomposition of belowground and aboveground plant litters in peatlands of boreal Alberta, Canada. Can J Bot 79:9–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Tomppo E (1999) Forest resources of Finnish peatlands in 1951–1994. Int Peat J 9:38–44Google Scholar
  132. Toth J, Gillard D (1988) Experimental design and evaluation of a peatland drainage system for forestry by optimization of synthetic hydrographs. Can J For Res 18:353–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Vasander H (1982). Plant biomass and production in virgin, drained and fertilized sites in a raised bog in southern Finland. Ann Bot Fenn 19:103–125Google Scholar
  134. Vasander H, Leivo A, Tanninen T (1992) Rehabilitation of a drained peatland area in the Seitseminen national park in southern Finland. In: Bragg OM, Hulme PD, Ingram HAP, Robertson RA (eds) Peatland ecosystems and man: an impact assessment. International Peat Society, University of Dundee, Dundee, pp 381–387Google Scholar
  135. Vasander H, Laiho R, Laine J (1997) Changes in species diversity in peatlands drained for forestry. In: Trettin CC, Jurgensen MF, Grigal DF, Gale MR, Jeglum JK (eds) Northern forested wetlands, ecology and management. CRC, Boca Raton, pp 109–119Google Scholar
  136. Vasander H, Tuittila E-S, Komulainen V-M, Laine J, Sallantaus T (1998) Restoration of peatlands drained for forestry in Finland. In: Malterer T, Johnson K, Stewart J (eds) Peatland restoration and reclamation — techniques and regulatory considerations. International Peat Society, Jyväskylä, Finland, pp 88–93Google Scholar
  137. Vasander H, Tuittila E-S, Lode E, Lundin L, Ilomets M, Sallantaus T, Heikkilä R, Pitkänen M-L, Laine J (2003) Status and restoration of peatlands in northern Europe. Wetland Ecol Manage 11:51–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Venäläinen A, Rontu L, Solantie R (1999) On the influence of peatland draining on local climate. Boreal Environ Res 4:89–100Google Scholar
  139. Verry ES, Urban NR (1992). Nutrient cycling at Marcell bog, Minnesota. Suo 43:147–153Google Scholar
  140. Virkkala R, Korhonen KT, Haapanen R, Aapala K (2000) Protected forests and peatlands in forest and peatland vegetation zones in Finland based on the 8th National Forest Inventory. (In Finnish) Suomen ympäristö 395:1–49Google Scholar
  141. Vompersky SE, Smagina MV, Ivanov AI, Glukhova TV (1992) The effect of forest drainage on the balance of organic matter in forest mires. In: Bragg OM, Hulme PD, Ingram HAP, Robertson RA (eds) Peatland ecosystems and man: an impact assessment. International Peat Society, University of Dundee, Dundee, pp 17–22Google Scholar
  142. Walters CJ, Holling CS (1990) Large-scale management experiments and learning by doing. Ecology 71:2060–2068CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Weltzin JF, Pastor J, Harth C, Bridgham SD, Updegraff K, Chapin CT (2000) Response of bog and fen plant communities to warming and water-table manipulations. Ecology 81:3464–3478CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Weltzin JF, Bridgham SD, Pastor, J, Chen JQ, Harth C (2003) Potential effects of warming and drying on peatland plant community composition. Global Change Biol 9:141–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Westman CJ, Laiho R (2003) Nutrient dynamics of peatland forests after water-level drawdown. Biogeochemistry 63:269–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Wheeler BD, Shaw SC (1995) Restoration of damaged peatlands with particular reference to lowland raised bogs affected by peat extraction. HMSO, LondonGoogle Scholar
  147. Whiting GJ, Chanton JP (1993) Primary production control of methane emission from wetlands. Nature 364:794–795CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Williams RT, Crawford R (1983) Effects of various physiochemical factors on microbial activity in peatlands: aerobic biodegradation processes. Can J Microbiol 61:1430–1437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Zehetmayr JWL (1954) Experiments in tree planting on peat. For Comm Bull 22:1–110Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jukka Laine
    • 1
  • Raija Laiho
    • 2
  • Kari Minkkinen
    • 2
  • Harri Vasander
    • 2
  1. 1.Parkano Research UnitFinnish Forest Research InstituteParkanoFinland
  2. 2.Peatland Ecology Group, Department of Forest EcologyUniversity of HelsinkiHelsinkiFinland

Personalised recommendations