Strasheela: Design and Usage of a Music Composition Environment Based on the Oz Programming Model

  • Torsten Anders
  • Christina Anagnostopoulou
  • Michael Alcorn
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 3389)


Strasheela provides a means for the composer to create a symbolic score by formally describing it in a rule-based way. The environment defines a rich music representation for complex polyphonic scores. Strasheela enables the user to define expressive compositional rules and then to apply them to the score. Compositional rules can restrict many aspects of the music – including the rhythmic structure, the melodic structure and the harmonic structure – by constraining the parameters (e.g. duration or pitch) of musical events according to some numerical or logical relation. Strasheela combines this expressivity with efficient search strategies.

Strasheela is implemented in the Oz programming language. The Strasheela user writes an Oz program which applies the Strasheela music representation. The program searches for one or more solution scores which fulfil all compositional rules applied to the score.


Constraint Programming Distribution Strategy Class Hierarchy Music Notation Score Object 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Roads, C.: The Computer Music Tutorial. MIT Press, Cambridge (1996)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Laurson, M.: Patchwork. A Visual Programming Language and Some Musical Applications. PhD thesis, Sibelius Academy (1996)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Anders, T.: Arno: Constraints Programming in Common Music. In: Proceedings of the 2000 International Computer Music Conference (2000)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Truchet, C., Assayag, G., Codognet, P.: OMClouds, a heuristic solver for musical constraints. In: MIC 2003: The Fifth Metaheuristics International Conference (2003)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sandred, O.: OpenMusic. RC library Tutorial (2000)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rueda, C., Lindberg, M., Laurson, M., Block, G., Assayag, G.: Integrating Constraint Programming in Visual Musical Composition Languages. In: ECAI 1998 Workshop on Constraints for Artistic Applications, Brighton (1998)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    van Roy, P., Haridi, S.: Concepts, Techniques, and Models of Computer Programming. MIT Press, Cambridge (2004)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Motte, D.d.l.: Kontrapunkt. Bärenreiter-Verlag (1981)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Schulte, C., Smolka, G.: Finite Domain Constraint Programming in Oz. A Tutorial (2004)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Selfridge-Field, E. (ed.): Beyond MIDI. The Handbook of Musical Codes. MIT press, Cambridge (1997)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Dannenberg, R.B.: Music Representation Issues, Techniques, and Systems. Computer Music Journal 17(3) (1993)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wiggins, G., Miranda, E., Smaill, A., Harris, M.: Surveying Musical Representation Systems: A Framework for Evaluation. Computer Music Journal 17(3) (1993)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Desain, P., Honing, H.: CLOSe to the edge? Advanced object oriented techniques in the representation of musical knowledge. Journal of New Music Research 2 (1997)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Dannenberg, R.B.: The Canon Score Language. Computer Music Journal (1989)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Dannenberg, R.B., Desain, P., Honing, H.: Programming language design for music. In: Poli, G.D., Picialli, A., Pope, S.T., Roads, C. (eds.) Musical Signal Processing. Swets & Zeitlinger, Lisse (1997)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Müller, T.: Problem Solving with Finite Set Constraints in Oz. A Tutorial (2004)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Anders, T.: A wizard’s aid: efficient music constraint programming with Oz. In: Proceedings of the 2002 International Computer Music Conference (2002)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Boulanger, R. (ed.): The Csound Book. Perspectives in Software Synthesis, Sound Desing, Signal Processing, and Programming. The MIT Press, Cambridge (2000)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    McCartney, J.: Rethinking the Computer Music Language: SuperCollider. Computer Music Journal 26(4) (2002)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
  21. 21.
    Nienhuys, H.W., Nieuwenhuizen, J.: LilyPond notation for everyone.
  22. 22.
    Henz, M., Lauer, S., Zimmermann, D.: COMPOzE — intention-based music composition through constraint programming. In: Proceedings of the 8th IEEE International Conference on Tools with Artificial Intelligence (1996)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Torsten Anders
    • 1
  • Christina Anagnostopoulou
    • 1
  • Michael Alcorn
    • 1
  1. 1.Sonic Arts Research CentreQueen’s University BelfastNorthern Ireland

Personalised recommendations