A Video Watermarking Using the 3-D Wavelet Transform and Two Perceptual Watermarks
An effective video watermarking algorithm is proposed to protect the copyright. Two perceptual binary images are used as the watermark and the watermarking procedure is based on a three-dimensional discrete wavelet transform (3-D DWT) and two spread spectrum sequences. Two perceptual watermarks are preprocessed using mixing and pseudorandom permutation. After dividing the video sequence into video shots, the 3-D DWT is performed, then the preprocessed watermarks are embedded into the 3-D DWT coefficients, while considering robustness and invisibility, using two spread spectrum sequences defined as the user key. Experimental results show that the watermarked frames are subjectively indistinguishable from the original frames, plus the proposed video watermarking algorithm is sufficiently robust against such attacks as low pass filtering, frame dropping, frame average, and MPEG coding.
KeywordsVideo Sequence Discrete Cosine Transform Watermark Image Digital Watermark Video Shot
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