Fingerprinting Curves

  • Hongmei Gou
  • Min Wu
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 3304)


This paper presents a new method for robust data hiding in curves and highlights potential applications including digital fingerprinting of map document for trace and track purposes. We parameterize a curve using the B-spline model and add a spread spectrum sequence to the coordinates of the B-spline control points. In order to achieve robust fingerprint detection, we propose an iterative alignment-minimization algorithm to perform curve registration and deal with the non-uniqueness of B-spline control points. We show through experiments the robustness of our method against various attacks such as collusion, geometric transformations and perturbation, printing-and-scanning, and some of their combinations. We demonstrate the feasibility of our method for fingerprinting topographic maps as well as writings and drawings. The extension from hiding data in 2D topographic maps to 3D elevation data sets is also discussed.


Control Point Point Correspondence Fourier Descriptor Original Curve Test Curve 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Wu, M., Trappe, W., Wang, Z., Liu, K.J.R.: Collusion resistant fingerprinting for multimedia. IEEE Signal Processing Magazine 21, 15–27 (2004)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chang, H., Chen, T., Kan, K.: Watermarking 2D/3D graphics for copyright protection. In: Proc. of IEEE ICASSP, pp. 720–723 (2003)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Barni, M., Bartolini, F., Piva, A., Salucco, F.: Robust watermarking of cartographic images. EURASIP Journal on Applied Signal Processing 2, 197–208 (2002)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Solachidis, V., Pitas, I.: Watermarking polygonal lines using fourier descriptors. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications 24, 44–51 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ohbuchi, R., Ueda, H., Endoh, S.: Watermarking 2D vector maps in the meshspectral domain. In: Proc. of the Shape Modeling International, SMI (2003)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Koch, E., Zhao, J.: Embedding robust labels into images for copyright protection. In: Proc. Int. Congr. Intellectural Property Rights for Specicalized Information, Knowledge and New Technologies (1995)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wu, M., Tang, E., Liu, B.: Data hiding in digital binary image. In: Proc. of IEEE ICME, pp. 393–396 (2000)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wu, M., Liu, B.: Data hiding in binary image for authentication and annotation. IEEE Trans. on Multimedia 6, 528–538 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ohbuchi, R., Masuda, H., Aono, M.: A Shape-Preserving Data Embedding Algorithm for NURBS Curves and Surfaces. In: Proc. of CGI, pp. 180–187 (1999)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lee, J.J., Cho, N.I., Kim, J.W.: Watermarking for 3D NURBS graphic data. In: Proc. of IEEE MMSP, pp. 304–307 (2002)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cox, I., Killian, J., Leighton, F., Shamoon, T.: Secure spread spectrum watermarking for multimedia. IEEE Transcations on Image Processing 6, 1673–1687 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Jain, A.K.: Fundamentals of Digital Image Processing. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs (1989)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Farin, G.E.: Curves and surfaces for computer-aided geometric design: a practical guide, 4th edn. Academic Press, London (1997)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Stone, H.: Analysis of attacks on image watermarks with randomized coefficients. Technical Report 96-045, NEC Research Institute (1996)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Zhao, H., Wu, M., Wang, Z., Liu, K.J.R.: Nonlinear collusion attacks on independent multimedia fingerprints. Accepted by IEEE Trans. on Image Proc. (2004). Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Cabrelli, C., Molter, U.: Automatic representation of binary images. IEEE Trans. on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence 12, 1190–1196 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Xia, M., Liu, B.: Image registration by ‘super-curves’. IEEE Trans. on Image Processing 13, 720–732 (2004)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC): U.S. Oceanic and Atomospheric Administration,

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hongmei Gou
    • 1
  • Min Wu
    • 1
  1. 1.University of MarylandCollege ParkU.S.A.

Personalised recommendations