Advertisement

Chosen-Ciphertext Security of Multiple Encryption

  • Yevgeniy Dodis
  • Jonathan Katz
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 3378)

Abstract

Encryption of data using multiple, independent encryption schemes (“multiple encryption”) has been suggested in a variety of contexts, and can be used, for example, to protect against partial key exposure or cryptanalysis, or to enforce threshold access to data. Most prior work on this subject has focused on the security of multiple encryption against chosen-plaintext attacks, and has shown constructions secure in this sense based on the chosen-plaintext security of the component schemes. Subsequent work has sometimes assumed that these solutions are also secure against chosen-ciphertext attacks when component schemes with stronger security properties are used. Unfortunately, this intuition is false for all existing multiple encryption schemes.

Here, in addition to formalizing the problem of chosen-ciphertext security for multiple encryption, we give simple, efficient, and generic constructions of multiple encryption schemes secure against chosen-ciphertext attacks (based on any component schemes secure against such attacks) in the standard model. We also give a more efficient construction from any (hierarchical) identity-based encryption scheme secure against selective-identity chosen plaintext attacks. Finally, we discuss a wide range of applications for our proposed schemes.

Keywords

Encryption Scheme Message Authentication Code Broadcast Encryption Challenge Ciphertext Multiple Encryption 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Aiello, B., Bellare, M., Di Crescenzo, G., Venkatesan, R.: Security Amplification by Composition: the Case of Doubly-Iterated, Ideal Ciphers. In: Krawczyk, H. (ed.) CRYPTO 1998. LNCS, vol. 1462, p. 390. Springer, Heidelberg (1998)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bellare, M., Boldyreva, A., Desai, A., Pointcheval, D.: Key-Privacy in Public-Key Encryption. In: Boyd, C. (ed.) ASIACRYPT 2001. LNCS, vol. 2248, p. 566. Springer, Heidelberg (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bellare, M., Desai, A., Pointcheval, D., Rogaway, P.: Relations among Notions of Security for Public-Key Encryption Schemes. In: Krawczyk, H. (ed.) CRYPTO 1998. LNCS, vol. 1462, p. 26. Springer, Heidelberg (1998)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bellare, M., Namprempre, C.: Authenticated Encryption: Relations Among Notions and Analysis of the Generic Composition Paradigm. In: Okamoto, T. (ed.) ASIACRYPT 2000. LNCS, vol. 1976, p. 531. Springer, Heidelberg (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bellare, M., Palacio, A.: Protecting against Key Exposure: Strongly Key-Insulated Encryption with Optimal Threshold, Available at http://eprint.iacr.org/2002/064
  6. 6.
    Bellare, M., Rogaway, P.: Collision-Resistant Hashing: Towards Making UOWHFs Practical. In: Kaliski Jr., B.S. (ed.) CRYPTO 1997. LNCS, vol. 1294, pp. 470–484. Springer, Heidelberg (1997)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Boneh, D., Boyen, X.: Efficient Selective-ID Secure Identity Based Encryption Without Random Oracles. In: Cachin, C., Camenisch, J.L. (eds.) EUROCRYPT 2004. LNCS, vol. 3027, pp. 223–238. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Boneh, D., Franklin, M.: Identity-Based Encryption From the Weil Pairing. In: Kilian, J. (ed.) CRYPTO 2001. LNCS, vol. 2139, p. 213. Springer, Heidelberg (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Boneh, D., Di Crescenzo, G., Ostrovsky, R., Persiano, G.: Searchable Public Key Encryption. In: Cachin, C., Camenisch, J.L. (eds.) EUROCRYPT 2004. LNCS, vol. 3027, pp. 506–522. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Boneh, D., Katz, J.: Improved Efficiency for CCA-Secure Cryptosystems Built Using Identity Based Encryption. RSA — Cryptographers Track (2005) (to appear)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Canetti, R., Dodis, Y., Halevi, S., Kushilevitz, E., Sahai, A.: Exposure-Resilient Functions and All-or-Nothing Transforms. In: Preneel, B. (ed.) EUROCRYPT 2000. LNCS, vol. 1807, p. 453. Springer, Heidelberg (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Canetti, R., Halevi, S., Katz, J.: Chosen-Ciphertext Security from Identity-Based Encryption. In: Cachin, C., Camenisch, J.L. (eds.) EUROCRYPT 2004. LNCS, vol. 3027, pp. 207–222. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Canetti, R., Goldwasser, S.: An Efficient Threshold Public-Key Cryptosystem Secure Against Adaptive Chosen-Ciphertext Attack. In: Stern, J. (ed.) EUROCRYPT 1999. LNCS, vol. 1592, p. 90. Springer, Heidelberg (1999)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Chaum, D.: Untraceable Electronic Mail, Return Addresses, and Digital Pseudonyms. Comm. ACM 24(2), 84–88 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Cramer, R., Shoup, V.: A Practical Public Key Cryptosystem Provably Secure Against Chosen Ciphertext Attack. In: Krawczyk, H. (ed.) CRYPTO 1998. LNCS, vol. 1462, p. 13. Springer, Heidelberg (1998)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Desmedt, Y.: Society and Group-Oriented Cryptography: a New Concept. In: Pomerance, C. (ed.) CRYPTO 1987. LNCS, vol. 293, pp. 120–127. Springer, Heidelberg (1988)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Dodis, Y., Fazio, N.: Public Key Broadcast Encryption for Stateless Receivers. In: ACM Workshop on Digital Rights Management (2002)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Dodis, Y., Fazio, N.: Public Key Broadcast Encryption Secure Against Adaptive Chosen Ciphertext Attack. In: Desmedt, Y.G. (ed.) PKC 2003. LNCS, vol. 2567. Springer, Heidelberg (2002)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Dodis, Y., Ivan, A.: Proxy Cryptography Revisited. In: NDSS 2003 (2003)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Dodis, Y., Katz, J., Xu, S., Yung, M.: Key-Insulated Public-Key Cryptosystems. In: Knudsen, L.R. (ed.) EUROCRYPT 2002. LNCS, vol. 2332, p. 65. Springer, Heidelberg (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Even, S., Goldreich, O.: On the Power of Cascade Ciphers. ACM Trans. Comp. Systems 3, 108–116 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Fiat, A., Naor, M.: Broadcast Encryption. In: Stinson, D.R. (ed.) CRYPTO 1993. LNCS, vol. 773, pp. 480–491. Springer, Heidelberg (1994)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Franklin, M., Yung, M.: Communication Complexity of Secure Computation. In: STOC 1992 (1992)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gentry, C.: Certificate-Based Encryption and the Certificate Revocation Problem. In: Biham, E. (ed.) EUROCRYPT 2003. LNCS, vol. 2656. Springer, Heidelberg (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Gentry, C., Silverberg, A.: Hierarchical Id-Based Cryptography. In: Zheng, Y. (ed.) ASIACRYPT 2002. LNCS, vol. 2501, pp. 548–566. Springer, Heidelberg (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Goldschlag, D., Reed, M., Syverson, P.: Onion Routing. Comm. ACM 42(2), 39–41 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Goldwasser, S., Micali, S., Rivest, R.: A Digital Signature Scheme Secure Against Adaptive Chosen-Message Attacks. SIAM J. Computing 17(2), 281–308 (1988)zbMATHCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Herzberg, A.: On Tolerant Cryptographic Constructions, Available at http://eprint.iacr.org/2002/135/
  29. 29.
    Krawczyk, H.: Secret sharing made short. In: Stinson, D.R. (ed.) CRYPTO 1993. LNCS, vol. 773, pp. 136–146. Springer, Heidelberg (1994)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    MacKenzie, P.: An Efficient Two-Party Public Key Cryptosystem Secure Against Adaptive Chosen Ciphertext Attack. In: Desmedt, Y.G. (ed.) PKC 2003. LNCS, vol. 2567, pp. 47–61. Springer, Heidelberg (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Maurer, U., Massey, J.: Cascade Ciphers: the Importance of Being First. J. Crypto. 6(1), 55–61 (1993)zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Merkle, R., Hellman, M.: On the Security of Multiple Encryption. Comm. ACM 24(7), 465–467 (1981)CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Naor, D., Naor, M., Lotspiech, J.: Revocation and Tracing Schemes for Stateless Receivers. In: Kilian, J. (ed.) CRYPTO 2001. LNCS, vol. 2139, p. 41. Springer, Heidelberg (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    NESSIE consortium. Portfolio of Recommended Cryptographic Primitives (Manuscript) (February 2003), Available at http://www.cosic.esat.kuleuven.ac.be/nessie/deliverables/decision-final.pdf
  35. 35.
    Rabin, M.: Efficient Dispersal of Information for Security, Load Balancing, and Fault Tolerance. J. ACM 36(2), 335–348 (1989)zbMATHCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Rivest, R.: All-or-Nothing Encryption and the Package Transform. In: Biham, E. (ed.) FSE 1997. LNCS, vol. 1267, pp. 210–218. Springer, Heidelberg (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Shamir, A.: How to Share a Secret. Comm. ACM 22(11), 612–613 (1979)zbMATHCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Shannon, C.: Communication Theory of Secrecy Systems. Bell System Technical Journal 28 (October 1949)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Shoup, V.: A Proposal for an ISO Standard for Public-Key Encryption, version 2.1, Available at http://eprint.iacr.org/2001/112/
  40. 40.
    Shoup, V., Gennaro, R.: Securing Threshold Cryptosystems Against Chosen Ciphertext Attack. J. Crypto 15(2), 75–96 (2002)zbMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Zhang, R., Hanaoka, G., Shikata, J., Imai, H.: On the Security of Multiple Encryption, or CCA-security+CCA-security=CCA-security? In: Bao, F., Deng, R., Zhou, J. (eds.) PKC 2004. LNCS, vol. 2947, pp. 360–374. Springer, Heidelberg (2004), Also available at http://eprint.iacr.org/2003/181 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yevgeniy Dodis
    • 1
  • Jonathan Katz
    • 2
  1. 1.Dept. of Computer ScienceNew York University 
  2. 2.Dept. of Computer ScienceUniversity of Maryland 

Personalised recommendations