Advertisement

Minimising Perceived Latency in Audio-Conferencing Systems over Application-Level Multicast

  • Nick Blundell
  • Laurent Mathy
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 3311)

Abstract

In this paper, we propose a scalable and dynamically-adapting application-level multicast (ALM) routing protocol, designed specifically for audio-conferencing systems over the Internet.

Currently proposed ALM protocols try to optimise delay for the whole group of participating nodes during construction and maintenance of an overlay network which, when using standard packet flooding, can result in a number of the participants experiencing unacceptably-high latencies, unsuitable for real-time audio communication; whereas we propose to dynamically prioritise routing for those participants who are currently in conversation (i.e. those who require the lowest latencies in order to react to conversational cues) and allow higher latencies for participants who simply listen to the conversation without taking an active part in it in that particular moment in time.

Thus, we aim to provide low perceived latency for all of the audio-conference participants without any support from the underlying network.

Keywords

Target Node Overlay Network Conversation Analysis Client Node Overlay Node 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Athelstan. Transcript of a Forty-Two–Member Meeting in the Corpus of Spoken Professional American English (CSPAE), http://www.athel.com/sample.html
  2. 2.
    Banerjee, S., Bhattacharjee, B., Kommareddy, C.: Scalable Application Layer Multicast. In: ACM SIGCOMM (August 2002)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Banerjee, S., Lee, S., Bhattacharjee, B., Srinivasan, A.: Resilient Multicast using Overlays. In: Proceedings ACM Sigmetrics 2003, San Diego, CA. (June 2003)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chu, Y.-H., Rao, S., Zhang, H.: A Case for End System Multicast. In: ACM SIGMETRICS, Santa Clare, CA, USA, pp. 1–12 (June 2000)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Competition Commission. Lloyds TSB / Abbey National Merger Inquiry Open-Meeting Transcript, http://www.competition-commission.org.uk/inquiries/completed/2001/lloyd%s/lloydstran.htm
  6. 6.
    Deering, S., Cheriton, D.: Multicast Routing in Datagrams Internetworks and Extended LANs. ACM Trans. Comp. Syst. 8, 85–110 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    El-Sayed, A., Roca, V., Mathy, L.: A Survey of Proposals for an Alternative Group Communication Service. IEEE Network 17(1), 46–51 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mathy, L., Canonico, R., Hutchison, D.: An Overlay Tree Building Control Protocol. In: Proc. of Intl. workshop on Networked Group Communication (NGC), pp. 76–87 (November 2001)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Mehta, P.C., Udani, S.: Overview of VoIP, Technical Report MS-CIS-01-31. Technical report, University of Pennsylvania (February 2001)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sacks, H.: Lectures on Conversation. Blackwell, Oxford (1992)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Schmitz, U.: Eloquent silence. Linguistik-Server Essen (LINSE) (1994)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Tan, S.-W., Waters, G.: Building Low Delay Application Layer Multicast Trees. In: Proceeding of 4th Annual PostGraduate Symposium (PGNet 2003), pp. 27–32. John Moore University, Liverpool (June 2003)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Zegura, E., Calvert, K., Bhattacharjee, S.: How to Model an Internetwork. In: IEEE Infocom, pp. 40–52 (March 1996)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nick Blundell
    • 1
  • Laurent Mathy
    • 1
  1. 1.Lancaster UniversityUK

Personalised recommendations