Flexible Verification of MPEG-4 Stream in Peer-to-Peer CDN

  • Tieyan Li
  • Yongdong Wu
  • Di Ma
  • Huafei Zhu
  • Robert H. Deng
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 3269)


The current packet based stream authentication schemes provide effective and efficient authentication over a group of packets transmitted on erasure channels. However, by fixing the packets in transmission, any packet manipulation will cause authentication failure. In p2p content delivery network where a proxy-in-the-middle is able to store, forward, transcode and transform the stream, previous schemes are simply unapplicable. To address the problem, we propose a flexible verification scheme that relies on special stream formats (i.e. Unequal Loss Protection ULP scheme [7]). We apply the so called Unequal Loss Verification ULV scheme into MPEG-4 framework. The encoding, packing, amortizing and verifying methods are elaborated in this paper. Our analysis shows that the scheme is secure and cost effective. The scheme is indeed content aware and ensures the verification rate intuitively reflecting a meaningful stream. Further on, we describe the general method of publishing and retrieving a stream in p2p CDN.


Packet Loss Authentication Scheme Packet Loss Rate Digital Right Management Object Group 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    ISO/IEC 14496-1:2001 Information Technology - Coding of Audio-Visual Objects- Part 1: Systems Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    ISO/IEC 14496-2:2003 Information Technology - Coding of Audio-Visual Objects- Part 2: Visual Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Li, W.: Overview of fine granularity scalability in MPEG-4 video standard. IEEE Trans. on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology 11(3), 301–317 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kuhne, G., Kuhmnch, C.: Transmitting MPEG-4 Video Streams over the Internet: Problems and Solutions. ACM Multimedia (1999)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chia, C.H., Beg, M.S.: MPEG-4 video transmission over bluetooth links. In: IEEE International Conference on Personal Wireless Communications, pp. 280–284 (2002)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ikkurthy, P., Labrador, M.A.: Characterization of MPEG-4 traffic over IEEE 802.11b wireless LANs. In: 27th Annual IEEE Conference on Local Computer Networks, pp. 421–427 (2002)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Mohr, A.E., Riskin, E.A., Ladner, R.E.: Unequal loss protection: graceful degradation of image quality over packet erasure channels through forward error correction. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications 18(6), 819–828 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Merkle, R.C.: A certified digital signature. In: Brassard, G. (ed.) CRYPTO 1989. LNCS, vol. 435, pp. 218–238. Springer, Heidelberg (1990)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Jonathan Robbins RTT and Loss vs. Packet Size and Bitrate,
  10. 10.
    Saroui, S., Gummadi, K.P., Dunn, R.J., Gribble, S.D., Levy, H.M.: An analysis of Internet content delivery systems. In: Proc. 5th Symposium on Operating Systems Design and Implementation (OSDI), Boston, MA (October 2002)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Luby, M., Mitzenmacher, M., Shokrollahi, A., Spielman, D., Stemann, V.: Practical loss-resilient codes. In: Proc. 29th Annual ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing (STOC), El Paso, TX (May 1997)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Castro, M., Druschel, P., Kermarrec, A., Nandi, A., Rowstron, A., Singh, A.: Splitstream: High-bandwidth multicast in a cooperative environment. In: Proc. 18th ACM symposiom on operating systems principles (SOSP), NY (October 2003)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Padmanabhan, V.N., Wang, H.J., Chou, P.A.: Resilient Peer-to-Peer Streaming. In: IEEE ICNP 2003, Atlanta, GA, USA (November 2003)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Canetti, R., Garay, J., Itkis, G., Micciancio, D., Naor, M., Pinkas, B.: Multicast security: A taxonomy and some efficient constructions. In: Proc. IEEE INFOCOM 1999, New York, NY (1999)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gennaro, R., Rohatgi, P.: How to sign digital streams. In: Advances in Cryptology-CRYPTO 1997, Santa Barbara, CA (August 1997)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wong, C.K., Lam, S.S.: Digital signatures for flows and multicasts. In: Proc. IEEE International Conference on Network Protocols, Austin, TX (October 1998)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Rohatgi, P.: A compact and fast hybrid signature scheme for multicast packet authentication. In: Proc. 6th ACM Conference on Computer and Communication Security (CCS), Singapore (November 1999)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Perrig, A., Canetti, R., Tygar, J.D., Song, D.: Efficient authentication and signature of multicast streams over lossy channels. In: Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on Research in Security and Privacy, May 2000, pp. 56–73 (2000)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Perrig, A., Canetti, R., Song, D., Tygar, J.D.: Efficient and secure source authentication for multicast. In: Proceedings of the Symposium on Network and Distributed Systems Security (NDSS 2001), February 2001, pp. 35–46. Internet Society, San Diego (2001)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Golle, P., Modadugu, N.: Authenticated streamed data in the presernce of random packet loss. In: Proc. NDSS 2001, San Diego, CA (2001)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Miner, S., Staddon, J.: Graph-based authentication of digital streams. In: IEEE S&P 2001, pp. 232–246 (2001)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Perrig, A.: The BiBa one-time signature and broadcast authentication protocol. In: Proceedings of the Eighth ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security (CCS-8), Philadelphia PA, USA, November 2001, pp. 28–37 (2001)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Park, J.M., Chong, E.K., Siegel, H.J.: Efficient multicast packet authentication using signature amortization. In: IEEE S&P 2002, pp. 227–240 (2002)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Pannetrat, A., Molva, R.: Efficient multicast packet authentication. In: Proc. NDSS 2003, San Diego, CA (2003)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Krohn, M.N., Freedman, M.J., Mazires, D.: On-the-Fly Verification of Rateless Erasure Codes for Efficient Content Distribution. In: IEEE S&P 2004, California, USA (2004)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Karlof, C., Sastry, N., Li, Y., Perrig, A., Tygar, J.: Distillation codes and applications to DoS resistant multicast authentication. In: Proc. NDSS 2004, San Diego, CA (February 2004)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lysyanskaya, A., Tamassia, R., Triandopoulos, N.: Multicast Authentication in Fully Adversarial Networks. In: IEEE S&P 2004, California, USA (2004)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tieyan Li
    • 1
  • Yongdong Wu
    • 1
  • Di Ma
    • 1
  • Huafei Zhu
    • 1
  • Robert H. Deng
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute for Infocomm Research (I2R)Singapore
  2. 2.School of Information SystemsSingapore Management UniversitySingapore

Personalised recommendations