Towards a Multi-calendar Temporal Type System for (Semantic) Web Query Languages

  • François Bry
  • Stephanie Spranger
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 3208)


Time is omnipresent on the (Semantic) Web. However, formalism like XML, XML Schema, RDF, OWL and (Semantic) Web query languages have, if any, only very limited notions of temporal data types and temporal theories built-in. Recently, the development of Web Services for temporal operations has begun. In this article, we describe a connection, possibly the first one, between such Web Services and Web formalisms: A proposal of a type system for temporal and calendric data, called multi-calendar temporal type system seamlessly integrated into a host (query) language. The type system’s associated type checking methods are beyond the scope of this article. For proof-of-concept purposes, the Web and Semantic Web query language Xcerpt has been chosen.


Temporal Logic Type System Type Check Type Constructor Syntactic Form 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    McDermott, D.V.: A temporal Logic for Reasoning about Processes and Plans. Cognitive Science 6, 101–155 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Allen, J.F.: Maintaining Knowledge about temporal Intervals. Communications of the ACM 26, 832–843 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    van Benthem, J.: The Logic of Time. Studies in Epistemology, Logic, Methodology, and Philosophy of Science. D. Reidel Publishing Company, Dordrecht (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gabbay, D.M., Hodkinson, I., Reynolds, M.: Temporal Logic. Mathematical Foundations and Computational Aspects, vol. 1. Oxford University Press Inc., New York (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Vila, L.: A Survey on temporal Reasoning in Artificial Intelligence. Artificial Intelligence 7, 4–28 (1994)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chandra, R., Segev, A., Stonebraker, M.: Implementing Calendars and temporal Rules in next Generation Databases. In: Proc. Int. Conf. on Data Engineering, pp. 264–273 (1994)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bettini, C., Jajodia, S., Wang, X.S.: Time Granularities in Databases, Data Mining, and temporal Reasoning. Springer, Berlin (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ning, P., Wang, X.S., Jajodia, S.: An Algebraic Representation of Calendars. In: The Annuals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence, Kluwer (2001) (to appear)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dershowitz, N., Reingold, E.M.: Calendrical Calculations: The Millennium Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2001)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ohlbach, H.J.: WebCal, an advanced Calendar Server. Technical Report. University of Munich (2003)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bry, F., Lorenz, B., Ohlbach, H.J., Spranger, S.: On Reasoning on Time and Location on the Web. In: Bry, F., Henze, N., Małuszyński, J. (eds.) PPSWR 2003. LNCS, vol. 2901, pp. 69–83. Springer, Heidelberg (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Schaffert, S., Bry, F.: Querying the Web Reconsidered: A Practical Introduction to Xcerpt. Technical Report, PMS-FB-2004-7. University of Munich (2004)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bry, F., Spranger, S.: Temporal Constructs for a Web Language. In: Proc. 4th Workshop on Interval Temporal Logics and Duration Calculi, ESSLLI (2003)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • François Bry
    • 1
  • Stephanie Spranger
    • 1
  1. 1.University of MunichMunichGermany

Personalised recommendations