The Genetic Code Revisited: Inner-to-Outer Map, 2D-Gray Map, and World-Map Genetic Representations

  • H. M. de Oliveira
  • N. S. Santos-Magalhães
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 3124)


How to represent the genetic code? Despite the fact that it is extensively known, the DNA mapping into proteins remains as one of the relevant discoveries of genetics. However, modern genomic signal processing usually requires converting symbolic-DNA strings into complex-valued signals in order to take full advantage of a broad variety of digital processing techniques. The genetic code is revisited in this paper, addressing alternative representations for it, which can be worthy for genomic signal processing. Three original representations are discussed. The inner-to-outer map builds on the unbalanced role of nucleotides of a ’codon’ and it seems to be suitable for handling information-theory-based matter. The two-dimensional-Gray map representation is offered as a mathematically structured map that can help interpreting spectrograms or scalograms. Finally, the world-map representation for the genetic code is investigated, which can particularly be valuable for educational purposes – besides furnishing plenty of room for application of distance-based algorithms.


Genetic Code Signal Processing Technique Genomic Signal Voronoi Region Standard Genetic Code 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. M. de Oliveira
    • 1
  • N. S. Santos-Magalhães
    • 2
  1. 1.Departamento de Eletrônica e SistemasGrupo de Processamento de Sinais CaixaRecifeBrazil
  2. 2.Departamento de Bioquímica–Laboratório de Imunologia Keizo-Asami–LIKAUniversidade Federal de PernambucoRecifeBrazil

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