Declarative Specification of Ambiance in VRML Landscapes

  • Vincent Jolivet
  • Dimitri Plemenos
  • Patrick Poulingeas
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 3039)


Nowadays, VRML has grown to a Web3D standard. But there is still a lack of high-level tools to help a VRML designer in his/her conception of a virtual world (in the same way as declarative modellers make easier the conception than classical modellers). The purpose of our work is to allow a VRML designer to specify an ambiance in a declarative manner. The method described in this paper takes into account imprecision and uncertainty in ambiance descriptions with the use of fuzzy subsets theory. With this framework, the designer can introduce some modifiers (like: “very little” or “extremely”) in his/her objectives in order to refine the wished ambiance. Two characteristics have been studied: the foggy aspect and natural lighting. Natural lighting is introduced with the aim of a natural description: the lived time.


Membership Function Virtual World Natural Lighting Fuzzy Subset Parametric Property 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Bonnefoi, P.-F.: Techniques de Satisfaction de Contraintes pour la Modélisation Déclarative. Application à la Génération Concurrente de Scènes. Ph.D. Thesis (in french). Université de Limoges (June 1999)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Contact, a VRML plug-in of Blaxxun Technologies,
  3. 3.
    Desmontils, E.: Formalisation des Propriétés en Modélisation déclarative à l’Aide des Ensembles flous. Rapport de Recherche IRIN 106. Nantes (December 1995)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Desmontils, E., Pacholczyk, D.: A qualitative Approach to fuzzy Properties in Scene Description. In: CISST 1997, Las Vegas, USA, pp. 139–148 (1997)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Desmontils, E., Martin, J.-Y.: Properties Taxonomy in Declarative Modeling. In: CISST 1997, Las Vegas, USA, pp. 130–138 (1997)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Desmontils, E.: Expressing Constraint Satisfaction Problems in Declarative Modeling using natural Language and fuzzy Sets. Computer & Graphics 24, 555–568 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Foley, J., van Dam, A., Feiner, S., Hughes, J.: Introduction to Computer Graphics. Addison Wesley Longman, Inc., Amsterdam (1994)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Jolivet, V., Plemenos, D., Poulingeas, P.: Declarative Approach of Inverse Direct Lighting Problems. In: 3IA 2002, Limoges, May 14-15 (2002)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Marschner, S., Greenberg, D.: Inverse Lighting for Photography. In: IS&T/SID Fifth Color Imaging Conference (November 1997)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    OpenGL 1.5 Specifications:
  11. 11.
    Plemenos, D.: Declarative Modelling by Hierarchical Decomposition. In: The Actual State of the MultiFormes Project. GraphiCon 1995, July 1-5, St Petersbourg (1995)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    VRML 1997. ISO/IEC 14772:1997,
  13. 13.
    Siret, D.: Sunlighting Design: an Inverse Approach of Simulation for CAD Tools. In: Advances in Computer-Aided-Design, CADEX 1996, Hagenberg (September 1996)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Siret, D.: Propositions pour une Approche Déclarative des Ambiances dans le Projet Architectural. Application à l’Ensoleillement. Thèse de Doctorat. Université de Nantes (June 1997)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vincent Jolivet
    • 1
  • Dimitri Plemenos
    • 1
  • Patrick Poulingeas
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratoire MSILimogesFrance

Personalised recommendations