Advertisement

Related-Key Attacks on Triple-DES and DESX Variants

  • Raphael C. -W. Phan
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 2964)

Abstract

In this paper, we present related-key slide attacks on 2-key and 3-key triple DES, and related-key differential and slide attacks on two variants of DESX. First, we show that 2-key and 3-key triple-DES are susceptible to related-key slide attacks. The only previously known such attacks are related-key differential attacks on 3-key triple-DES. Second, we present a related-key differential attack on DESX+, a variant of the DESX with its pre- and post-whitening XOR operations replaced with addition modulo 264. Our attack shows a counter-intuitive result, that DESX+ is weaker than DESX against a related-key attack. Third, we present the first known attacks on DES-EXE, another variant of DESX where the XOR operations and DES encryptions are interchanged. Further, our attacks show that DES-EXE is also weaker than DESX against a related-key attack. This work suggests that extreme care has to be taken when proposing variants of popular block ciphers, that it is not always newer variants that are more resistant to attacks.

Keywords

Block Cipher Addition Modulo Previous Attack MITM Attack Birthday Paradox 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Biham, E.: New Types of Cryptanalytic Attacks Using Related Keys. In: Helleseth, T. (ed.) EUROCRYPT 1993. LNCS, vol. 765, pp. 398–409. Springer, Heidelberg (1994)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Biham, E., Shamir, A.: Differential Cryptanalysis of the Full 16-round DES. In: Brickell, E.F. (ed.) CRYPTO 1992. LNCS, vol. 740, pp. 487–496. Springer, Heidelberg (1993)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Biham, E., Shamir, A.: Differential Cryptanalysis of DES-like Cryptosystems. Journal of Cryptology 4(1), 3–72 (1991)zbMATHCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Biryukov, A., Wagner, D.: Advanced Slide Attacks. In: Preneel, B. (ed.) EUROCRYPT 2000. LNCS, vol. 1807, pp. 589–606. Springer, Heidelberg (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Daemen, J.: Limitations of the Even-Mansour Construction. In: Matsumoto, T., Imai, H., Rivest, R.L. (eds.) ASIACRYPT 1991. LNCS, vol. 739, pp. 495–498. Springer, Heidelberg (1993)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kaliski, B.S., Robshaw, M.J.B.: Multiple Encryption: Weighing Security and Performance. Dr. Dobb’s Journal (1996)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kelsey, J., Schneier, B., Wagner, D.: Key-Schedule Cryptanalysis of IDEA, G-DES, GOST, SAFER and Triple-DES. In: Koblitz, N. (ed.) CRYPTO 1996. LNCS, vol. 1109, pp. 237–251. Springer, Heidelberg (1996)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kelsey, J., Schneier, B., Wagner, D.: Related-Key Cryptanalysis of 3-WAY, Biham-DES, CAST, DES-X, NewDES, RC2, and TEA. In: Han, Y., Quing, S. (eds.) ICICS 1997. LNCS, vol. 1334, pp. 233–246. Springer, Heidelberg (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kilian, J., Rogaway, P.: How to Protect DES Against Exhaustive Key Search. In: Koblitz, N. (ed.) CRYPTO 1996. LNCS, vol. 1109, pp. 252–267. Springer, Heidelberg (1996)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kilian, J., Rogaway, P.: How to Protect DES Against Exhaustive Key Search (an Analysis of DESX). Journal of Cryptology 14(1), 17–35 (2001)zbMATHCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lucks, S.: Attacking Triple Encryption. In: Vaudenay, S. (ed.) FSE 1998. LNCS, vol. 1372, pp. 239–253. Springer, Heidelberg (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Merkle, R.C., Hellman, M.E.: On the Security of Multiple Encryption. Communications of the ACM 24(7) (1981)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    van Oorschot, P.C., Wiener, M.J.: A Known-plaintext Attack on Two-Key Triple Encryption. In: Damgård, I.B. (ed.) EUROCRYPT 1990. LNCS, vol. 473, pp. 318–325. Springer, Heidelberg (1991)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    van Oorschot, P.C., Wiener, M.J.: Parallel Collision Search with Cryptanalytic Applications. Journal of Cryptology 12(1), 1–28 (1999)zbMATHCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Raphael C. -W. Phan
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of EngineeringSwinburne Sarawak Institute of TechnologyKuchingMalaysia

Personalised recommendations