Advertisement

Media/Communication Studies and Cultural Studies in Japan (1920s–1990s): From ‘Public Opinion’ to the ‘Public Sphere’

  • Akihiro KitadaEmail author
  • Fabian Schäfer
Chapter
Part of the Medien • Kultur • Kommunikation book series (MKK)

Zusammenfassung

Dieser Aufsatz befasst sich mit zwei Momenten der Geschichte der Medien- und Kommunikationswissenschaft in Japan, den Anfängen der Disziplin in der Vorkriegszeit und dem Aufkommen eines kritischen kommunikations- und medientheoretischen Ansatzes in den 1980er und 90er Jahren, der mit der Rezeption des Habermasschen Öffentlichkeitsbegriffs einherging. Im ersten Teil des Aufsatzes wird der Fokus auf die Theoretisierung von „Presse“ und „öffentlicher Meinung“ durch Vertreter des Faches Zeitungswissenschaft (shinbungaku) sowie des marxistischen und sozialpsychologisches Spektrums gelegt. Im zweiten Teil wird auf die Rezeption der (British) Cultural Studies in Japan seit den 1980er Jahren eingegangen, die auf eine Zeit der Dominanz von aus den USA stammenden positivistisch-sozialwissenschaflichen Ansätzen der Mass Communication Research in den 1950er und 60er und stark depolitisiert-postmodernistischer medienwissenschaftlicher Ansätze in den 1970er und 80er Jahren gefolgt ist.

Abstract

This paper deals with two historical moments and the respective emerging prevalent concepts in the history of communication studies in Japan, namely the beginnings of communication studies in prewar Japan and critical approaches in Japanese communication studies emerging in the 1980s and 90s, with a particular focus on the multi-layered appropriation of the concept of the public sphere. Accordingly, in part one of this paper light is shed on theorizations of the press and public opinion by the proponents of newspaper studies in Japan (shinbungaku) as well as their sociologist, Marxist, and socio-psychological counterparts, whereas part two describes the reception of (British) Cultural Studies in Japan since the 1980s, which followed a phase of strongly positivistic, social science-influenced, mass communication research inspired by the respective field in the USA in the 1950s and 60s and a strong current of depoliticized semiotic or poststructuralist postmodern thought in the 1970s and 1980s, particularly in media studies.

Biblography

  1. Becker, H. (1936). Sociology in Japan. American Sociological Review, 1(3), 455–471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bücher, K. (1981 [1926]). Entstehung- und Evolution des Zeitungswesens. In H.-D. Fischer, & H. Minte: Karl Bücher. Auswahl der publizistikwissenschaftlichen Schriften (pp. 117–146). Bochum: Brockmeyer.Google Scholar
  3. Dainihon-shinbungakkai. (1919). Shinbungaku zensho (Complete Works on Newspaper Studies). Tōkyō: Dainihon shinbungakkai.Google Scholar
  4. Etō, F. (1972). Nihon no masukomi kenkyū: kaiko to tenbō (Mass Communication Research in Japan: Perspectives and Retrospectives). Shinbungaku hyōron, 21, 125–130.Google Scholar
  5. Fujiwara, K. (1923). Shinbunshi to shakai-bunka no kensetsu (Newspaper and the construction of social culture). Tōkyō: Shimoide shoten.Google Scholar
  6. Gramsci, A. (1988). An Antonio Gramsci Reader: Selected Writings, 1916–1935. New York: Schocken Books.Google Scholar
  7. Grossberg, L. (1997). Cultural studies: What’s in a name (One More Time). In L. Grossberg (ed.), Bringing it all back home: Essays on cultural studies (pp. 245–271). Durham: Duke UP.Google Scholar
  8. Habermas, J. (1990 [1962]). Strukturwandel der Öffentlichkeit. Untersuchungen zu einer Kategorie der bürgerlichen Gesellschaft. Frankfurt a. M.: Suhrkamp.Google Scholar
  9. Hall, S. (1978). Policing the crisis: Mugging, the state, and law and order. New York: Holmes & Meier.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hanada, T. (1996). Kōkyō-ken to iu na no shakai kūkan (The social space called the public sphere). Tōkyō: Bokutaku-sha.Google Scholar
  11. Hanada, T., & Yoshimi, S. Y. (1999). Jo: Karuchuraru sutadīzu to no taiwa (Foreword: A dialogue with cultural studies). In T. Hanada, S. Yoshimi, & C. Sparks (eds.), Karuchuraru sutadīzu to no taiwa (A dialogue with cultural studies) (pp. 11–34). Tōkyō: Shinyōsha.Google Scholar
  12. Hanada, T., Yoshimi, S., & Sparks, C. (1999). Karuchuraru sutadīzu to no taiwa (A dialogue with cultural studies). Tōkyō: Shinyōsha.Google Scholar
  13. Hanada, T. (2006). The Japanese ‘Public Sphere’: The Kugai. Theory, Culture & Society, 23(2–3), 612–614.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Harootunian, H. D. (2000). Overcome by modernity: History, culture, and community in interwar Japan. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Hashimoto, Y. (1989). Hairi no komyunikēshon: aironī, metafā, inpurikēchā (Irrational communication: Irony, metaphor, implicature). Tōkyō: Keisō shobō.Google Scholar
  16. Ishikawa, S. (1998). Mass communication research in Japan. Javnost—The Public, 5(1), 59–69.Google Scholar
  17. Iwasaki, M., & Richter, S. (2005). Rekishishūseishugi − 1990-ikō no isō (The Phase of Historical Revisionism since the 1990s). In A. Kurasawa, et al. (eds.), Naze, ima ajia taiheiyō sensō ka (The Pacific War. Why Now?) (pp. 357–392). Tōkyō: Iwanami shoten.Google Scholar
  18. Kang, S.-J., & Yoshimi, S. (2001). Gurōbaru-ka no enkinhō (Perspectives of Globalization). Tōkyō: Iwanami shoten.Google Scholar
  19. Karatani, K. (1986). Tankyū I (Investigations I). Kōdansha: Tōkyō.Google Scholar
  20. Kiyohara, Y. (2010). Jūmin undō no shakaigaku (Sociology of citizens’ movements). Unpublished Master Thesis, The University of Tōkyō.Google Scholar
  21. Koyama. (1935). Shinbungaku (Newspaper studies). Tōkyō: Sanseidō.Google Scholar
  22. Koyama, E. (1937). Senden gijutsu-ron (On propaganda techniques). Tōkyō: Kōyō sho’in.Google Scholar
  23. Koyama, E. (1939). Jinshugaku gairon (Introduction to racial studies). Tōkyō: Nikkō shoin.Google Scholar
  24. Koyama, E. (1942). Senji senden-ron (On wartime propaganda). Tōkyō: Sanseidō.Google Scholar
  25. Kushner, B. (2006). The thought war: Japanese imperial propaganda. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.Google Scholar
  26. Kutsch, A., & Pöttker, H. (1997). Kommunikationswissenschaft – autobiographisch. Einleitung. In A. Kutsch & H. Pöttker (Eds.), Kommunikationswissenschaft – autobiographisch (pp. 7–20) Opladen: Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.Google Scholar
  27. Lepenies, W. (1981). Studien zur kognitiven, sozialen und historischen Identität der Soziologie. In W. Lepenies (eds.), Geschichte der Soziologie (pp. 1–35). Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp.Google Scholar
  28. Löblich, M., & Pfaff-Rüdiger, S. (2009). Die empirisch-sozialwissenschaftliche Wende und die Veränderung der Forschungspraxis in der Zeitungs- und Publizistikwissenschaft. In P. J. Schulz, U. Hartung, & S. Keller (eds.), Identität und Vielfalt der Kommunikationswissenschaft (pp. 51–64). Konstanz: UVK.Google Scholar
  29. Mannheim, K. (1970 [1928]). Das Problem der Generationen. In K. Mannheim (ed.) Wissenssoziologie (Sociology of Knowledge) (pp. 509–565). Berlin: Neuwied.Google Scholar
  30. Matsumoto, K. (1899). Shinbungaku (Newspaper studies). Tōkyō: Hakubunkan.Google Scholar
  31. Mizukoshi, S. (1999). Media, tekunorojī, ōdiensu (Media, Technology, Audience). In T. Hanada, S. Yoshimi, & C. Sparks (eds.), Karuchuraru sutadīzu to no taiwa (A dialogue with cultural studies) (pp. 491–502). Tōkyō: Shinyōsha.Google Scholar
  32. Mōri, Y. (2003). Bunka=Seiji: Gurobarizēshon jidai no kūkan hanran (Culture=Politics: The Struggle Over Space in the Age of Globalization). Chōfu: Getsuyōsha.Google Scholar
  33. Morris-Suzuki, T. (2000). Ethnic engineering: Scientific racism and public opinion surveys in midcentury Japan. Positions, 8(2), 499–529.Google Scholar
  34. Münzner, G. (1928). Öffentliche Meinung und Presse. Karlsruhe: Braun.Google Scholar
  35. Narita, R. (2001). Karuchuraru sutadīzu, 1996nen igo (Cultural Studies since 1996). In R. Narita (ed.), Rekishigaku no sutairu – shigakushi to sono shūhen (The style of history—History of the study of history and its margins) (pp. 347–373). Tōkyō: Azekura shobō.Google Scholar
  36. Ōkuma, T. & Mōri, Y. (1999). Yakusha kaisetsu: karuchuraru sutadīzu no nihon ni okeru dōnyū (Translator’s commentary: The introduction of cultural studies to Japan). In G. Turner (ed.), Karuchuraru sutadīzu nyūmon (Orig. title: British Cultural Studies: An Introduction) (pp. 338–351). Tōkyō: Sakuhinsha.Google Scholar
  37. Ono, H. (1922). Nihon shinbun hattatsu-shi (History of the Development of the Japanese Press). Tōkyō; Ōsaka: Tōkyō nichi nichi shinbun-sha; Ōsaka mainichi shinbun-sha.Google Scholar
  38. Ono, H. (1925). Ōbei sho-daigaku no shinbunkenkyū-shisetsu to honpō ni okeru kenkyūkikan-sōsetsu no shian. (Insitutes of Newspaper Studies in Europe and America and My Personal Plan for the Establishment of a Research Institute in Japan). In Nihondenpōtsūshin-sha (ed.), Shinbun sōran. Taishō 14nen-ban. Tōkyō: Nihon denpō tsūshin-sha.Google Scholar
  39. Ono, H. (1926). Shinbungaku kenkyū-kai no sōsetsu ni tsuite. (On the establishment of an association for newspaper research). Shinbungaku kenkyū 1, 1.7.Google Scholar
  40. Ono, H. (1927). Meiji shoki no handō shisō no shinbun (Newspapers of Reactionary Ideas in the Initial Phase of the Meiji Period). Shinkyū jidai 1927 (Jan.).Google Scholar
  41. Ono, H. (1930/1931). Nihon shinbun hattatsu-shi (History of the Development of the Japanese Press) I+II. In Sōgō jānarizumu kōza (Comprehensive lectures in journalism). Tōkyō: Naigai-sha.Google Scholar
  42. Onose, F. (1915). Saishin jissai shinbungaku (The recent condition of newspaper studies). Tōkyō: Yūzankaku.Google Scholar
  43. Said, E. W. (1983). Traveling Theory. In id. (ed.), The World, the text, and the critic. Cambridge: Mass., Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  44. Saitō, J. (2000). Kōkyō-sei (Publicness). Tōkyō: Iwanami.Google Scholar
  45. Sakai, N. (1999). Sōkatsu tōron. komento (General Discussion. Comment). In T. Hanada, S. Yoshimi, & C. Sparks (eds.), Karuchuraru sutadīzu to no taiwa (A Dialogue with Cultural Studies) (pp. 510–516). Tōkyō: Shinyōsha.Google Scholar
  46. Shinbun-kenkyūshitsu. (1931). Shinbun kenkyū-shitsu dai-ikkai kenkyū hōkoku (First research report of the newspaper studies seminar). Tōkyō: Ryōsho fukyō-kai.Google Scholar
  47. Shinbun-kenkyūshitsu (1937). Shōgakkō jidō oyobi hogo-sha ni tai-suru shinbun etsudoku chōsa (Survey of Newspaper Reading among Elementary-School Children and their Parents). In Teikoku-shinbun-kenkyūshitsu (ed.), Shinbun kenkyū-shitsu dai-3-kai kenkyū hōkoku. Tōkyō: Tōa tōsha-in.Google Scholar
  48. Shinbun-kenkyūshitsu (1942a). Sōtei shinbun chōsa (Newspaper Survey among Conscripts). In Teikoku-shinbun-kenkyūshitsu (ed.), Shinbun kenkyū-shitsu dai-6-kai kenkyū hōkoku. Tōkyō: Tōa tōsha-in.Google Scholar
  49. Shinbun-kenkyūshitsu (1942b). Tōkyō furitsu dai-1-chūgakkō seito ni tai-suru shinbun etsudoku chōsa (Survey of Newspaper Reading among School Children of Tōkyō First Prefectural Middle School). In Teikoku-shinbun-kenkyūshitsu (ed.) Shinbun kenkyū-shitsu dai-5-kai kenkyū hōkoku. Tōkyō: Shinbun-kenkyūshitsu.Google Scholar
  50. Sugimura, K. (alias Sojinkan) (1915). Saikin shinbunshi-gaku (Recent Newspaper Studies). Tōkyō: Keio gijuku shuppankyoku.Google Scholar
  51. Takebe, T. (1921). Kyōsei-gaku (Educational and administrative studies). Tōkyō: Dōbunkan.Google Scholar
  52. Tönnies, F. (1922). Kritik der öffentlichen Meinung. Berlin: Julius Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Tosaka, J. (1966 [1932]). Yoron no kōsatsu (Meditations on public opinion). In Tosaka Jun zenshū (Complete Works of Tosaka Jun). Tōkyō: Keisō Shobō.Google Scholar
  54. Tosaka, J. (1966 [1934]). Shinbungenshō no bunseki (Analysis of the press phenomenon). In Tosaka Jun zenshū (Complete Works of Tosaka Jun). Tōkyō: Keisō Shobō.Google Scholar
  55. Tosaka, J. (1977 [1935/1936]). Nihon ideorogī-ron (Japanese Ideology). Tōkyō: Iwanami bunkō.Google Scholar
  56. Tsurumi, S. (1967). Genkai geijutsu-ron (On marginal art). Tōkyō: Keisō shobō.Google Scholar
  57. Yoneda, S. (1919). Gendai-jin shinri to gendai bunmei (The psychology of the modern man and modern civilization). Tōkyō: Kōbundō shobō.Google Scholar
  58. Yoneyama, L. (2000). ’Karuchuraru sutadīzu’ to iu <tōei> to <jissen> (Cultural Studies. ‘Projection’ and ’Praxis). Shisō, 6, 73–86.Google Scholar
  59. Yoshida, J. (2000). Intānetto kūkan no shakaigaku: Jōhō nettowāku shakai to kōkyōken (A sociology of internet space: Information-network society and the public sphere). Kyōto: Sekai shisōsha.Google Scholar
  60. Yoshida, S., et al. (1995). Habermas wo yomu (Reading Habermas). Tōkyō: Ōtsuki shoten.Google Scholar
  61. Yoshimi, S. (1998a). The condition of cultural studies in Japan. Japanese Studies, 18, 65–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Yoshimi, S. (1998b). Zasshi media to nashonarizumu no shōhi (The consumption of nationalism and magazines). In Y. Komori & T. Takahashi (eds.), Nashonaru histori wo koete (Overcoming national history). Tōkyō daigaku shuppankai: Tōkyō.Google Scholar
  63. Yoshimi, S. (1998c). 30nendai nihon ni okeru yuibutsuron-teki media-ron no shatei (The range of materialist media theory in Japan in the 1930s). Daikōkai, 25, 147–159.Google Scholar
  64. Yoshimi, S. (1999). Media tennō-sei to karuchuraru sutadīzu no shatei (Mass-mediated emperor system and the range of cultural studies). In T. Hanada, S. Yoshimi, & C. Sparks (eds.), Karuchuraru sutadīzu to no taiwa (A Dialogue with Cultural Studies) (pp. 458–481). Tōkyō Shinyōsha.Google Scholar
  65. Yoshimi, S. (1999). Tōkyō teidai shinbunkenkyūshitsu to shoki shinbungaku-teki chi no keisei wo megutte (The Newspaper Research Seminar at Tōkyō Imperial University and the Formation of Early Knowledge of Newspaper Studies). Tōkyō daigaku shakai jōhō kenkyūsho kiyō setsuritsu 50 shūnen kinengō 58, 45–71.Google Scholar
  66. Yoshimi, S. (2000). Media o kataru gensetsu: ryō-taisenkanki ni okeru shinbungaku no tanjō (Discourses on the media: The Birth of newspaper studies in the interwar period). In A. Kurihara et al. (eds.), Naiha suru chi: shintai, kotoba, kenryoku wo aminaosu (pp. 177–237). Tōkyō: Tōkyō daigaku shuppan-kai.Google Scholar
  67. Yoshimi, S. (2002). The Development of “Newspaper Studies” as an academic discipline in the Discoursive Space of 1930s Japan. Social Science Japan Journal, 5(2), 199–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Yoshimi, S. (2003). Television and nationalism. Historical change in the national domestic TV formation of postwar Japan. European Journal of Cultural Studies, 6, 459–487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Yoshimi, S. (2006). Cultural studies in Japan: An interview with Yoshimi Shun’ya. Theory, Culture & Society, 23, 305–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.TokioJapan
  2. 2.Nürnberg-ErlangenDeutschland

Personalised recommendations