Productive Competences—Speaking, Writing, Mediating

  • Petra Kirchhoff


Traditionally, the content of English language teaching was conceptualised in four skills: listening and reading (receptive skills), speaking and writing (productive skills). More recently, the categorisation of language knowledge and performance has changed: Now the use of our own language, e. g. when mediating, is also taken into consideration and the scope of our lessons is extended by teaching a combination of reading, viewing and listening (audiovisual skills, cf. chapter 6 in this volume).


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Further reading

  1. Goh, Christine/Burns, Anne (eds.) (2012): Teaching Speaking. A Holistic Approach. Cambridge.Google Scholar
  2. Hallet, Wolfgang (2016): Genres im fremdsprachlichen und bilingualen Unterricht. Formen und Muster der sprachlichen Interaktion. Seelze.Google Scholar
  3. Hyland, Ken (2009): Teaching and Researching Writing [2002]. Harlow.Google Scholar
  4. Kolb, Elisabeth (2016): Sprachmittlung. Studien zur Modellierung einer komplexen Kompetenz. Münster.Google Scholar
  5. Thornbury, Scott (2005): How to Teach Speaking. Harlow.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Deutschland, ein Teil von Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Petra Kirchhoff
    • 1
  1. 1.University of ErfurtErfurtGermany

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