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Die Rahmenanalyse politischer Diskurse

  • Paolo R. Donati

Zusammenfassung

Nachdem die Theorie der Ressourcenmobilisierung in den achtziger Jahren strukturtheoretische und sozialpsychologische Ansätze verdrängt hat, ist dieser Ansatz in den neunziger Jahren selbst ins Kreuzfeuer der Kritik geraten, gerade weil er sich auf ein Akteursmodell stützt, das Bewegungsaktivisten als ‚rationale‘ Individuen beschreibt. Nach dieser Vorstellung beruht das Motiv zum kollektiven Handeln auf einer abstrakten ökonomischen Rationalität und letztlich basieren die Handlungen individueller Akteure auf Kosten-Nutzenkalkülen (selective incentives) und den jeweils verfügbaren Ressourcen,2 während die Bedeutung gemeinsamer Ziele, auf die kollektives Handeln und Mobilisierungsprozesse gerichtet sind, ebenso wie auch die Rolle ideologischer Rechtfertigungen für gemeinsame Ziele und Handlungen weitgehend unberücksichtigt bleiben. Der Schwerpunkt der Kritik an Theorien rationaler Wahl und Ressourcenmobilisierungsansätzen bemängelt daher, daß diese keine Erklärungen für die Prozesse und Mechanismen hätten, durch die gemeinsame Ziele und Forderungen und deren Legitimation hervorgebracht werden. Dies führte zu einer Renaissance des Faktors ‚Kultur‘ als Erklärungsmoment in der Bewegungsforschung. In der Folge konzentrierte sich die sozialwissenschaftliche Forschung zunächst auf die kognitiven Prozesse, durch die Problemsichten generiert und interpretiert und Konsens über die Ziele der Bewegungsakteure hergestellt werden.3 Diese kognitive Wende in der Bewegungsforschung erhöhte das Interesse für die Rolle, die kulturelle Elemente bei der Mobilisierung von Interessen und der Genese wechselseitiger Bindungen und Solidaritäten haben (können).

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  • Paolo R. Donati

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