The goal of this chapter is to provide an overview of categorization processes. Following a brief introduction of memory models will be given. Different models of semantic memory will be presented in chapter 2.2. After this a section on taxonomic and goal-derived categorization follows. The chapter ends with a comparison of these two distinct categorization processes and a discussion of their role in consideration set formation.
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- 2.‘Basketball’ will make people rarely think of ‘float’. However provided with the sentence frame “Tom used a basketball as a life preserver when the boat sank”, people would think of a basketball as a float (BARSALOU 1982, p. 82).Google Scholar
- 3.This is how many researchers in this field interpreted the hierarchical network model by COLLINS & QUILLAIN (1969). However in a later article COLLINS & LOFTUS (1975) argued that the specific assumptions of hierachical organization and cognitive economy were not intended to be completely general (SMITH 1978, p. 17)Google Scholar
- 4.For bird e.g. feathers, beak, two legs etc.Google Scholar
- 5.this assumes a prototype rather than a probabilistic rule. The argumentation for the probabilistic rule is analoguous.Google Scholar
- 6.e.g. context of category learnig, task involvement, rule complexity etc.Google Scholar
- 7.basic level categories have also been examined in event taxonomies (see RIFKIN 1985)Google Scholar
- 8.for methods to derive membership values (see SPIES 1993, p. 219 ff.)Google Scholar