Signal processing is concerned with the identification, modelling, and utilisation of patterns and structures in a signal process. Signal processing methods plays a central role in information technology and digital telecommunication, in the efficient and optimal transmission, reception, and extraction of information. Stochastic signal processing theory provides the foundations for modelling the signals and the environments in which the signals propagate. Stochastic models are applied in signal processing, and in decision making systems, for extracting information from an observation signal which may be noisy, distorted or incomplete. This chapter begins with a definition of signals, and a brief introduction to various signal processing methodologies. We consider several key applications of digital signal processing in adaptive noise reduction, channel equalisation, pattern classification/recognition, audio signal coding, signal detection, and spatial processing for directional reception of signals. The chapter concludes with a study of the basic processes of sampling and digitisation of analog signals.
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