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Politische Gelegenheitsstrukturen in Theorien sozialer Bewegungen heute

  • Herbert Kitschelt

Zusammenfassung

Oft beruht die Behauptung, ein Begriff oder eine Hypothese seien neu in den Sozialwissenschaften, auf nichts anderem als einem kurzen theoriehistorischen Gedächtnis. Nichts beweist dies besser als die These, daß ‚politische Gelegenheitsstrukturen ‘(political opportunity structures) soziale Protestbewegungen und sogar den Umsturz ganzer politischer Herrschaftssysteme bewirken. Tatsächlich geht diese Überlegung bis auf die griechischen Klassiker zurück, die den Konsens der Eliten als wichtige Bedingung für die Vermeidung von sozialen Bewegungen identifizierten. So beobachtete bereits Platon, daß in jeder Regierungsform Revolution immer mit internem Dissens in der herrschenden Klasse beginne, während die bestehende Ordnung nicht aus den Angeln gehoben werden könne, solange diese Klasse eine geschlossene Auffassung vertrete, wie klein die Zahl ihrer Mitglieder relativ zur Gesamtbevölkerung auch immer sei (Platon 1941: 262). Aristoteles wiederholt dieselbe These später in seiner Politik (Aristoteles 1955:1305f) und gelangt zu einer Synthese dessen, was wir heute Deprivationstheorie und Theorie politischer Gelegenheitsstrukturen nennen würden. Nur dort, wo die Erfahrung sozialer Ungleichheit, Entrechtung und Erniedrigung einhergeht mit günstigen Umständen, die Nutznießer der bestehenden Ordnung auseinander zu dividieren, seien Bewegungen zu erwarten, die Verhältnisse tatsächlich ‚zum Tanzen ‘brächten.

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Copyright information

© Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden 1999

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  • Herbert Kitschelt

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