Divergences in the EU on an Active Mediterranean Policy



The countries of the southern shore of the Mediterranean (CSSM) consider the EU an important market and a source of development assistance, especially in a period of globalization where developing countries have abandoned the prospect of achieving industrial transformation on the basis of their own internal markets. Germany and the North European countries prefer an opening to the Eastern and Central European Countries (ECEC) rather than the South. This preference is not primarily due to geographical proximity, but the result of a lack of openness towards non-European cultures. France, on the other hand, favors the Mediterranean option, certainly not in order to exclude the accession of the ECEC to the EU, but with the hope of complementing an extension to the East with the inclusion of its own neighbors among the Western Mediterranean countries of Europe, i.e., Northern Africa. So Israel faces an uneasy configuration. The member states of the European Union which are most favorable to Israel in its conflict with the Arab world, the northern European nations and Germany, are the ones which are the least favorable to a Southern enlargement of the European Union which, however, could be expected to ease political tension in the region through economic development.


Civil Society Foreign Policy Comparative Advantage Real Wage Multinational Enterprise 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abdesselam, B. (1990). Le gaz algérien. Stratégies et enjeux. Alger: Bouchène.Google Scholar
  2. Albert, M. (1991). Capitalisme contre capitalisme. Paris: Editions du Seuil.Google Scholar
  3. Alexandratos, N. (1995). World agriculture towards 2010. A FAO-study. Chichester: Wiley.Google Scholar
  4. Amsden, A.H. (1977). The division of labour is limited by the type of the market: The case of the Taiwanese machine tool industry. World Development, 5, 217–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ansari, M. (1989). The Dutch Disease: The Canadian evidence. Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, 125, 804–813.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Asensio, A. (1995). Productivité, modération salariale et désinflation compétitive en Europe: des armes inégales [Productivity, wage restraint and competitive disinflation in Europe]. Economie appliquée, 48, 139–149.Google Scholar
  7. Bedrani, S.M. (1998). Intervention. In Institut de la Méditerranée—Economic Research Forum (Ed.), Les enjeux de la Méditerranée. Actes de la conférence organisée à Marseille les 24 et 25 mars, 1997 (pp. 175–176 ). Marseille: Editions de l’aube.Google Scholar
  8. Bensidoun, I. & Chevallier, A. (1996). Europe—Méditeranée: Le Pari de l’ouverture. Paris: Economica.Google Scholar
  9. Braun, D. (1989). Grenzen politischer Regulierung. Der Weg in die Massenarbeitslosigkeit am Beispiel der Niederlande. Wiesbaden: Deutscher Universitätsverlag.Google Scholar
  10. Cecco, M. de (1989). The European Monetary System and national interests. In P. Guerrieri & P.C. Padovan (Eds), The political economy of European integration. States, markets and institutions (pp. 85–99 ). New York: Harvester Wheatsheaf.Google Scholar
  11. Chen, H., Gordon, M.J., & Yan, Z. (1994). The real income and consumption of an urban Chinese family. Journal of Development Studies, 31, 201–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Compagnie Française de Pétrole (1994). Rapport annuel, 1993. Paris: Compagnie Française de Pétrole.Google Scholar
  13. Elsenhans, H. (1984). Transfert de technologie et intégration inter-industrielle arabe [Technology transfer and inter-branch integration in the Arab world]. Cahiers du CREAD, 4, 63–96.Google Scholar
  14. Elsenhans, H. (1995). Enjeux méditerranéens et cohésion européenne [Stakes in the Mediterranean and the cohesion of Europe]. In R. Bistolfi (Ed.), Euro-Méditerranée. Une région à construire (pp. 115–135 ). Paris: Publisud.Google Scholar
  15. Elsenhans, H. (1996). State, class and development. New Delhi: Radiant.Google Scholar
  16. Elsenhans, H. (1997). Globalisation: Myths and real challenges. Journal of the Third World Spectrum, 4, 11–13.Google Scholar
  17. Elsenhans, H. (1998). Option export-led et structures rentières dans les Pays du Sud de la Méditerranée [Export-orientation and rentier structures in the countries on the southern shore of the Mediterranean]. Annuaire de l’Afrique du Nord 1996, 275–292.Google Scholar
  18. Elsenhans, H. (1998). Discourse on economic globalization vs. problems of marginality. Journal of the Third World Spectrum, 5, 1–22Google Scholar
  19. Elsenhans, H. (1999). Autonomy of civil society, empowerment of labour, and the transition to capitalism. In R.B. Jain & R. Khator (Eds.), Bureaucracy-citizen interface: Conflict and consensus (pp. 23–28 ). New Delhi: B.K.Publishing Corporation.Google Scholar
  20. Elsenhans, H. (2000). La guerre d’Algérie 1954–1962. La transition d’une France à une autre. Le passage de la IV it la Ve République. Paris: Publisud.Google Scholar
  21. Elsenhans, H. (2000). Echec de l’Etat rentier: Echec du tiers-mondisme français [Failure of the rentier state-failure of French Thirdworldism. In G. Meynier (Ed.), L’Algérie contemporaine: Bilan et solutions pour sortir de la crise (pp. 119–154 ). Paris: Harmattan.Google Scholar
  22. Elsenhans, H., Kleiner, E., & Dreves, R.J. (2000). Développement, équité et extension du marché des masses. Une autre alternative. Le cas algérien. L’enjeu des PME industriels. Paris: Publisud.Google Scholar
  23. Enders, K. (1984). The Dutch Disease or problems of a sectoral boom. Zeitschrift für Wirtschaftsund Sozialwissenschaften, 104, 1–20.Google Scholar
  24. Eurostat (1997). Außen-und Intrahandel der Europäischen Union. Statistisches Jahrbuch 1958–1996, Themenkreis 6, Reihe A. Luxemburg: Amt für amtliche Veröffentlichungen.Google Scholar
  25. Exxon (1996). Annual Report 1995. Irving, TX: Exxon.Google Scholar
  26. Gautron, J.-C. (1986). La politique africaine de la France. Talence: Centre d’Etude d’Afrique Noire.Google Scholar
  27. Guillaumont-Jeanneney, S., Hua, P. (1996). Politique du change et développement des exportations manufacturées en Chine [Exchange rate policies and the growth of manufactured exports from China]. Revue économique, 47, 851–860.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hibou, B. & Martinez, L. (1998). Le parténariat euro-maghrébin: Un mariage blanc? Les études du CERI, 47. Paris: Centre d’Etudes des Relations Internationales.Google Scholar
  29. Hutchinson, M.M. (1994). Manufacturing sector resiliency to energy booms: Empirical evidence from Norway, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. Oxford Economic Papers, 46, 311–329.Google Scholar
  30. Khan, K.I.F. (1988). Petroleum taxation and contracts in the Third World-a law and policy perspective. Journal of World Trade, 22, 48–72.Google Scholar
  31. Lafay, G. (1996). Les origines internationales du chômage européen [The international origins of European unemployment]. Revue d’économie politique, 106, 943–963.Google Scholar
  32. Läufer, N.K.A. (1990). The inefficiency of the DM-Standard. In W.-R. Heilmann (Ed.), Geld, Banken und Versicherungen. Beiträge zum 5. Symposion Geld, Banken und Versicherungen an der Universität Karlsruhe (pp. 1045–1058 ). Karlsruhe: Recht und Wirtschaft.Google Scholar
  33. Levy, B. (1982). World oil marketing in transition. International Organization, 36, 113–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lingnau, H. (1989). Frankreichs Sozialisten. Tiersmondinistische Theorie und neokoloniale Praxis. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  35. Lokanathan, P.S. (1935). Industrial organization in India. London: Allen & Unwin.Google Scholar
  36. Lundestad, G. (1986). Empire by invitation? The United States. Journal of Peace Research, 23, 263–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Morris, D.M. (1965). The emergence of an industrial labor force in India. A study of the Bombay cotton mills, 1854–1947. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  38. Mundorf, H. (1998). Amtliche Wechselkurse dienen oft der Verfälschung der Wirklichkeit. Handelsblatt (August, 28/29), 2.Google Scholar
  39. Narrassiguin, P. (1995). Croissance tirée par les exportations et politique de change: Le cas de l’île Maurice [Export-led growth and exchange rate policsa. The case of Mauritius]. Revue d’économie politique, 105, 315–331.Google Scholar
  40. Nehrlich, Uwe (1995). L’Allemagne-un pays comme les autres [Germany: a country like others]. Politique étrangère, 60, 99–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Olson, M. (1982). The rise and decline of nations: Economic growth, stagflation, and social rigidities New Haven, CO: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  42. OPEC (1998). Mergers and Mothballing. Price Slump Confirms OPEC’s Warning. OPEC Bulletin, 29 (December 12); 3.Google Scholar
  43. Ould Aoudia, J. (1996). Les enjeux économiques de la nouvelle politique euro-méditerranéenne. Un choc salutaire pour les pays du Sud et de l’Est de la Méditerranée? Document de travail 96–5. Paris: Institut du Monde Arabe.Google Scholar
  44. Régnault, H. (1997). Entre mondialisation et régionalisation, le projet euro-méditerranéen et ses enjeux agro-alimentaires: Une lecture ricardienne [Between globalization and rationalization: the Euro-Mediterranean project and its stakes in agriculture and food]. Options méditerranéennes/Série A, 9, 191–198.Google Scholar
  45. Regnault, H. (1998). Libre-échange et exportations manufacturières des pays du sud de la Méditerranée: vers des cruelles désillusions [Free trade and exports of manufactures from the countries of the southern shore of the Mediterranean]. In A. Sid Ahmed (Ed.), Economies du Maghreb: L’impératif de Barcelone (pp. 215–224 ). Paris: CNRS Editions.Google Scholar
  46. Ricardo, D. (1951). On the principles of political economy and taxation. The works and correspondence of David Ricardo (Vol. 1). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1951.Google Scholar
  47. Rothstein, R.L. (1979). Global bargaining. UNCTAD and the quest for a new international economic order. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  48. Roux, B. (1998). Les agricultures du Maghreb dans la perspective du partenariat euro-Méditerranéen [The agricultures of the Maghrib under the challenge of the Euro-Mediterranean partnership]. In A, Sid Ahmed (Ed.), Economies du Maghreb: L’impératif de Barcelone (pp. 225–228 ). Paris: CNRS Éditions.Google Scholar
  49. Sarkar, P., Singer, H.W. (1991). Manufactured export of developing countries and their terms of trade since 1965. World Development, 19, 333–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Scherr, S.J. (1989). Agriculture in an export boom economy: A comparative analysis of policy and performance in Indonesia, Mexico and Nigeria. World Development, 17, 543–560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Sid Ahmed, A. (1987). Du ‘Dutch Disease’ a’l’OPEC Disease’. Quelques considérations théoriques autour de l’industrialisation des pays exportateurs de pétrole [From Dutch disease to OPEC disease: Some theoretical thoughts on the petroleum exporting countries]. Tiers Monde, 112, 896–908.Google Scholar
  52. SIPRI (1974). Oil and security. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities.Google Scholar
  53. Strack, D., Helmscholdt, H., & Schönherr, S. (1997). Internationale Einkommensvergleiche auf der Basis von Kaufkraftparitäten: Das Gefälle zwischen Industrie-und Entwicklungsländern verringert sich [International comparisons on the basis of buying power parity: Level differences between industrial and developing societies decrease]. IFO-Schnelldienst, 50, 8–14.Google Scholar
  54. Suh, S.T. (1987). The theory of unequal exchange and the developing countries. In K.D. Kim (Ed.), Dependency issues in Korean development. Comparative Perspectives (p. 111 ). Seoul: Seoul National University Press.Google Scholar
  55. Thibaud, P. & Vidal-Naquet, P. (1995). Le combat pour l’indépendance algérienne: Une fausse coïncidence[The struggle for Algerian independence. Misplaced coincidences]. Esprit, 63, 142–152.Google Scholar
  56. United Nations (1999), Monthly Bulletin of Statistics,53,5 (May).Google Scholar
  57. Yotopoulos, P.A. & Lin, J.-Y. (1993). Purchasing power parities for Taiwan: The basic data for 1985 and international comparisons. Journal of Economic Development, 18, 7–52.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Deutscher Universitäts-Verlag GmbH, Wiesbaden 2003

Authors and Affiliations

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations