Sustainable development requires extraction and utilization of energy resources on a viable basis for the welfare of human beings and global growth. An increased focus on sustainable development and global warming imposes policy-makers and decision-makers to prioritize environmental responsibility while maximizing economic benefits to the industry. Therefore, evaluating environmental aspects and potential impacts associated with energy resources is essential. Turkey, as a signatory of Kyoto protocol, needs to take actions especially in the energy sector to battle emissions. In order to achieve large-scale emission reduction, the current status needs to be placed under closer scrutiny and once the largest emission generating sectors are identified, necessary changes should be involved in accordance with accepted international standards that consider global warming, eco-balance, and sustainability. This paper presents a comparative evaluation of coal production and utilization impacts on carbon dioxide emission in Europe and in Turkey using geographic information systems (GIS).


Energy Climate change Sustainable development Coal CO2 emission GIS 


  1. Demirbaş, A.: Turkey’s renewable energy policy. Energy Sources Part A Recovery Utilization Environ Effects 28, 657–665 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Demirbaş, A., Bakış, R.: Energy from renewable sources in Turkey: status and future direction. Energy Sources Part A Recovery Utilization Environ Effects 26, 473–484 (2004)Google Scholar
  3. IEA: Energy balances of OECD countries. (2016)
  4. Kaygusuz, K.: Climate change mitigation in Turkey. Energy Sources Part A Recovery Utilization Environ Effects 26, 563–573 (2004)Google Scholar
  5. Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources (MENR): Energy report of Ankara, Turkey. (2001)
  6. Mitchell, A.: The ESRI Guide to GIS Analysis, vol. 2. ESRI Press (2005)Google Scholar
  7. Say, N.P., Yücel, M.: Energy consumption and CO2 emissions in Turkey: empirical analysis and future projection based on an economic growth. Energy Policy 34, 3870–3876 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Tokgöz, N.: A numerical analysis of worldwide CO2 emissions based on fossil fuels and effects on atmospheric warming in Turkey. Last accessed 07 July 2011
  9. Yüksel, I., Sandalcı, M.: Climate change, energy and the environment in Turkey. Energy Sources Part A Recovery Utilization Environ Effects 33, 410–422 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Mining Engineering DepartmentMiddle East Technical UniversityAnkaraTurkey

Personalised recommendations