Bound Water Removal Techniques

  • Mohammad U. H. Joardder
  • Monjur Mourshed
  • Mahadi Hasan Masud


Water of different state responses differently over the course of food processing. Removal of water need specific amount of energy depending on the nature of water boding energy. Different types of food processing provide additional energy to energy level of water to escape from food material. Moisture can be removed deploying different food process including drying and frying that associate simultaneous heat and mass transfer in most of the cases. This chapter highlights different bound water removal process mechanisms depending on the foods composition and properties as well as their subsequent effect on the food structure and quality enhancement.


Bound Water Removal Moisture contentMoisture Content Food processingFood Processing Boiling pointBoiling Point diffusionDiffusion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    K.M. Waananen, J.B. Litchfield, M.R. Okos, Classification of drying models for porous solids. Dry. Technol. 11(1), 1–40 (1993)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    M.M. Rahman, M.U.H. Joardder, M.I.H. Khan, N.D. Pham, M.A. Karim, Multi-scale model of food drying: current status and challenges. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 58(5), 858–876 (2018)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    C. Engels, M. Hendrickx, S. De Samblanx, I. De Gryze, P. Tobback, Modelling water diffusion during long-grain rice soaking. J. Food Eng. 5(1), 55–73 (1986)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    W.K. Lewis, The rate of drying of solid materials. Ind. Eng. Chem. 13(5), 427–432 (1921)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    A. Nieto, M.A. Castro, S.M. Alzamora, Kinetics of moisture transfer during air drying of blanched and/or osmotically dehydrated mango. J. Food Eng. 50(3), 175–185 (2001)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    M. Jayasundera, B. Adhikari, P. Aldred, A. Ghandi, Surface modification of spray dried food and emulsion powders with surface-active proteins: a review. J. Food Eng. 93(3), 266–277 (2009)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    N.P. Zogzas, Z.B. Maroulis, D. Marinos-Kouris, Densities, shrinkage and porosity of some vegetables during air drying. Dry. Technol. 12(7), 1653–1666 (1994)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    M. Raisul Islam, J.C. Ho, A.S. Mujumdar, Simulation of liquid diffusion-controlled drying of shrinking thin slabs subjected to multiple heat sources. Dry. Technol. 21(3), 413–438 (2003)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    E. Shahar et al., Sleep-disordered breathing and cardiovascular disease: cross-sectional results of the Sleep Heart Health Study. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 163(1), 19–25 (2001)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    J. Shi, M. Le Maguer, Osmotic dehydration of foods: mass transfer and modeling aspects. Food Rev. Int. 18(4), 305–335 (2002)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    C.K. Sankat, F. Castaigne, Foaming and drying behaviour of ripe bananas. LWT-Food Sci. Technol. 37(5), 517–525 (2004)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    B.R. Bhandari, T. Howes, Implication of glass transition for the drying and stability of dried foods. J. Food Eng. 40(1–2), 71–79 (1999)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    M. Karel, I. Saguy, Effects of water on diffusion in food systems, in Water Relationships in Foods (Springer, Boston, 1991), pp. 157–173Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    J.M. Aguilera, A. Chiralt, P. Fito, Food dehydration and product structure. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 14(10), 432–437 (2003)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    C. Rossello, J. Canellas, S. Simal, A. Berna, Simple mathematical model to predict the drying rates of potatoes. J. Agric. Food Chem. 40(12), 2374–2378 (1992)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Y. Sagara, Structural models related to transport properties for the dried layer of food materials undergoing freeze-drying. Dry. Technol. 19(2), 281–296 (2001)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Y. Sano, S. Yamamoto, Mutual diffusion coefficient of aqueous sugar solutions. J. Chem. Eng. Jpn. 26(6), 633–636 (1993)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    A.K. Datta, Porous media approaches to studying simultaneous heat and mass transfer in food processes. I: Problem formulations. J. Food Eng. 80(1), 80–95 (2007)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    W. Jost, Diffusion in Solids, Liquids, Gases (Academic, New York, 1952)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    C.J. Geankoplis, Transport Processes and Unit Operations, 3rd edn. (Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, 1993)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    T. Geankoplis, Processes and Unit Operations, 3rd edn. (Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, 1993)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    G.D. Saravacos, Mass transfer properties of foods. Eng. Prop. Foods 2, 169–221 (1986)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    J. Crank, The Mathematics of Diffusion (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1979)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    M.N.A. Hawlader, M.S. Uddin, J.C. Ho, A.B.W. Teng, Drying characteristics of tomatoes. J. Food Eng. 14(4), 259–268 (1991)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    A.J. Ede, K.C. Hales, The Physics of Drying in Heated Air with Particular Reference to Fruit and Vegetables (His Majesty’s Stationery Office, London, 1948)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    H.A. Becker, H.R. Sallans, A study of internal moisture movement in the drying of the wheat kernel. Cereal Chem. 32(3), 212–226 (1955)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    B.P. Fish, Diffusion and thermodynamics of water in potato starch gel, in Proceedings of the 1958 Conference on Fundamental Aspects of Dehydration of Foodstuffs, Society for Industrial Chemistry (1958), pp. 24–36Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    S. Simal, A. Mulet, J. Tarrazo, C. Rosselló, Drying models for green peas. Food Chem. 55(2), 121–128 (1996)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    P.N.T. Johnson, J.G. Brennan, F.Y. Addo-Yobo, Air-drying characteristics of plantain (Musa AAB). J. Food Eng. 37(2), 233–242 (1998)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    I. Doymaz, M. Pala, The thin-layer drying characteristics of corn. J. Food Eng. 60(2), 125–130 (2003)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    A.C. Jason, A Study of Evaporation and Diffusion Processes in the Drying of Fish Muscle (Metchim, Galati, 1958)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    J. Chirife, Diffusional process in the drying of tapioca root. J. Food Sci. 36(2), 327–330 (1971)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    R. Aguerre, C. Suarez, P.E. Viollaz, Drying kinetics of rough rice grain. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 17(6), 679–686 (1982)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    S.M. Alzamora, J. Chirife, Some factors controlling the kinetics of moisture movement during avocado dehydration. J. Food Sci. 45(6), 1649–1651 (1980)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    G. Mowlah, I. Kamoi, T. Obara, K. Takano, Water transport mechanism and some aspects of quality changes during air dehydration of bananas. Lebensm.-Wiss. Technol. 16(2), 103–107 (1983)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    M.C. Ece, A. Cihan, A liquid diffusion model for drying rough rice. Trans. ASAE 36(3), 837–840 (1993)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    K.M. Waananen, M.R. Okos, Effect of porosity on moisture diffusion during drying of pasta. J. Food Eng. 28(2), 121–137 (1996)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    A. Pezzutti, G.H. Crapiste, Sorptional equilibrium and drying characteristics of garlic. J. Food Eng. 31(1), 113–123 (1997)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    M. Karel, D.B. Lund, Physical Principles of Food Preservation: Revised and Expanded, vol 129 (CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2003)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    W.B. Van Arsdel, Approximate Diffusion Calculations for the Falling-Rate Phase of Drying (U.S. Deptartment of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Administration, Bureau of Agricultural and Industrial Chemistry, Albany, 1947)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    C.J. King, Rates of moisture sorption and desorption in porous dried foodstuffs. Food Technol. 22(4), 509 (1968)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    J.D. Babbitt, On the differential equations of diffusion. Can. J. Res. 28(4), 449–474 (1950)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    J. Chirife, Fundamentals of the drying mechanism during air dehydration of foods. Adv. Dry. 2, 73–102 (1983)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    W.B. Van Arsdel, M.J. Copley, A.I. Morgan, Food Dehydration, vol 1 (Van Nostrand/AVI Publshing Company, New York, 1973)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    O.A. Hougen, H.J. McCauley, W.R. Marshall, Limitations of diffusion equations in drying. Trans. AIChE 36(2), 183–206 (1940)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    R. Stollberg, F.F. Hill, Physics: fundamentals and frontiers. Am. J. Phys. 33(11), 972–973 (1965)Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    D.W. Green, R. H. Perry, in Perry’s Chemical Engineers’ Handbook, ed. by D.W. Green, R.H. Perry (McGraw-Hill Publishing, New York, 1973). no. C 660.28 P47 2008Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    A.-R. Khaled, K. Vafai, The role of porous media in modeling flow and heat transfer in biological tissues. Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 46(26), 4989–5003 (2003)Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    I.S. Saguy, A. Marabi, R. Wallach, New approach to model rehydration of dry food particulates utilizing principles of liquid transport in porous media. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 16(11), 495–506 (2005)Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    J.M. Aguilera, M. Michel, G. Mayor, Fat migration in chocolate: diffusion or capillary flow in a particulate solid?—A hypothesis paper. J. Food Sci. 69(7), 167–174 (2004)Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    A. Hamraoui, T. Nylander, Analytical approach for the Lucas–Washburn equation. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 250(2), 415–421 (2002)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    A.K. Datta, Porous media approaches to studying simultaneous heat and mass transfer in food processes. II: Property data and representative results. J. Food Eng. 80(1), 96–110 (2007)Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    T.Z. Harmathy, Simultaneous moisture and heat transfer in porous systems with particular reference to drying. Ind. Eng. Chem. Fundam. 8(1), 92–103 (1969)Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    C.H. Tong, D.B. Lund, Microwave heating of baked dough products with simultaneous heat and moisture transfer. J. Food Eng. 19(4), 319–339 (1993)Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    J.S. Roberts, C.H. Tong, D.B. Lund, Drying kinetics and time-temperature distribution of pregelatinized bread. J. Food Sci. 67(3), 1080–1087 (2002)Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    J.S. Roberts, C.H. Tong, The development of an isothermal drying apparatus and the evaluation of the diffusion model on hygroscopic porous material. Int. J. Food Prop. 6(1), 165–180 (2003)Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    K. Thorvaldsson, H. Janestad, A model for simultaneous heat, water and vapour diffusion. J. Food Eng. 40(3), 167–172 (1999)Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    F. Erdogdu, P. Dejmek, Determination of heat transfer coefficient during high pressure frying of potatoes. J. Food Eng. 96(4), 528–532 (2010)Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    M.K. Krokida, V. Oreopoulou, Z.B. Maroulis, Water loss and oil uptake as a function of frying time. J. Food Eng. 44(1), 39–46 (2000)Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    P. Bouchon, Understanding oil absorption during deep-fat frying. Adv. Food Nutr. Res. 57, 209–234 (2009)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    P. Bouchon, D.L. Pyle, Modelling oil absorption during post-frying cooling: II: solution of the mathematical model, model testing and simulations. Food Bioprod. Process. 83(4), 261–272 (2005)Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    A.M. Ziaiifar, F. Courtois, G. Trystram, Porosity development and its effect on oil uptake during frying process. J. Food Process Eng. 33(2), 191–212 (2010)Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    C.I. Pravisani, A. Calvelo, Minimum cooking time for potato strip frying. J. Food Sci. 51(3), 614–617 (1986)Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    L.S. Kassama, M.O. Ngadi, Pore development in chicken meat during deep-fat frying. LWT-Food Sci. Technol. 37(8), 841–847 (2004)Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    R.G. Moreira, X. Sun, Y. Chen, Factors affecting oil uptake in tortilla chips in deep-fat frying. J. Food Eng. 31(4), 485–498 (1997)Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    I.S. Saguy, D. Dana, Integrated approach to deep fat frying: engineering, nutrition, health and consumer aspects. J. Food Eng. 56(2–3), 143–152 (2003)Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    J. Garayo, R. Moreira, Vacuum frying of potato chips. J. Food Eng. 55(2), 181–191 (2002)Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    V.N.M. Rao, R.A.M. Delaney, An engineering perspective on deep-fat frying of breaded chicken pieces. Food Technol. 49(4), 138 (1995)Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    T.S. Ballard, P. Mallikarjunan, The effect of edible coatings and pressure frying using nitrogen gas on the quality of breaded fried chicken nuggets. J. Food Sci. 71(3), S259–S264 (2006)Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    B. Innawong, P. Mallikarjunan, J. Marcy, J. Cundiff, Pressure conditions and quality of chicken nuggets fried under gaseous nitrogen atmosphere. J. Food Process. Preserv. 30(2), 231–245 (2006)Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    V. Oreopoulou, M. Krokida, D. Marinos-Kouris, Frying of foods, in Handbook of Industial Drying, 3rd edn. (Taylor & Francis Group, New York, 2006)Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    R.M. Costa, F.A.R. Oliveira, O. Delaney, V. Gekas, Analysis of the heat transfer coefficient during potato frying. J. Food Eng. 39(3), 293–299 (1999)Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    B.E. Farkas, R.P. Singh, T.R. Rumsey, Modeling heat and mass transfer in immersion frying. I, model development. J. Food Eng. 29(2), 211–226 (1996)Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    C.G.J. Baker, Industrial Drying of Foods (Springer Science & Business Media, Berlin, 1997)Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    F.A.N. Fernandes, S. Rodrigues, C.L. Law, A.S. Mujumdar, Drying of exotic tropical fruits: a comprehensive review. Food Bioprocess Technol. 4(2), 163–185 (2011)Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    V. Orsat, G.S.V. Raghavan, Dehydration technologies to retain bioactive components, in Functional Food Ingredients and Nutraceuticals: Processing Technologies (CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2006), pp. 173–191Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    C. Vincent, P.G. Weintraub, G.J. Hallman, F. Fleurat-Lessard, Insect management with physical methods in pre-and post-harvest situations, in Concepts, Tactics, Strategies Case Studies (2009), p. 309Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    J. Srikiatden, J.S. Roberts, Moisture transfer in solid food materials: a review of mechanisms, models, and measurements. Int. J. Food Prop. 10(4), 739–777 (2007)Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    J. Srikiatden, J.S. Roberts, Predicting moisture profiles in potato and carrot during convective hot air drying using isothermally measured effective diffusivity. J. Food Eng. 84(4), 516–525 (2008)Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    L.M. Vaccarezza, J.L. Lombardi, J. Chirife, Kinetics of moisture movement during air drying of sugar beet root. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 9(3), 317–327 (1974)Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    G.D. Saravacos, S.E. Charm, A study of mechanism of fruit and vegetable dehydration. Food Technol. 16(1), 78 (1962)Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    J. Chirife, R.A. Cachero, Through-circulation drying of tapioca root. J. Food Sci. 35(4), 364–368 (1970)Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    J.M. Irudayaraj, S. Jun, Food Processing Operations Modeling: Design and Analysis (CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2008)Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    V. Orsat, V. Raghavan, and V. Meda, Microwave technology for food processing: an overview, in The Microwave Processing of Foods (Wood-Head Publishing, Cambridge, 2005), pp. 105–118Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    J. Farkas, Physical methods of food preservation, in Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, 3rd edn. (American Society of Microbiology, Washington, DC, 2007), pp. 685–712Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    A.K. Datta, Handbook of Microwave Technology for Food Application (CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2001)Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    R.F. Schiffmann, Microwave and dielectric drying, in Handbook of Industrial Drying, vol. 1 (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1995), pp. 345–372Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    U. Erle, Drying using microwave processing, in The Microwave Processing of Foods (Elsevier, New York, 2005), pp. 142–152Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    M.S. Venkatesh, G.S.V. Raghavan, An overview of microwave processing and dielectric properties of agri-food materials. Biosyst. Eng. 88(1), 1–18 (2004)Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    J.A. Canumir, J.E. Celis, J. de Bruijn, L.V. Vidal, Pasteurisation of apple juice by using microwaves. LWT-Food Sci. Technol. 35(5), 389–392 (2002)Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    H.A.O. Feng, J. Tang, D.S. Mattinson, J.K. Fellman, Microwave and spouted bed drying of frozen blueberries: the effect of dryingand pretreatment methods on physical properties and retention of flavor volatiles. J. Food Process. Preserv. 23(6), 463–479 (1999)Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    D. Piotrowski, A. Lenart, A. Wardzyński, Influence of osmotic dehydration on microwave-convective drying of frozen strawberries. J. Food Eng. 65(4), 519–525 (2004)Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    M.K. Krokida, Z.B. Maroulis, Effect of microwave drying on some quality properties of dehydrated products. Dry. Technol. 17(3), 449–466 (1999)Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    M.A.M. Khraisheh, W.A.M. McMinn, T.R.A. Magee, Quality and structural changes in starchy foods during microwave and convective drying. Food Res. Int. 37(5), 497–503 (2004)Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    T. Tulasidas, Combined convective and microwave drying of grapes. Dry. Technol. 13(4), 1029–1031 (1995)Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    N. Phisut, Spray drying technique of fruit juice powder: some factors influencing the properties of product. Int. Food Res. J. 19(4), 1297–1306 (2012)Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    O.A. Caparino, J. Tang, C.I. Nindo, S.S. Sablani, J.R. Powers, J.K. Fellman, Effect of drying methods on the physical properties and microstructures of mango (Philippine “Carabao”var.) powder. J. Food Eng. 111(1), 135–148 (2012)Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    D. Nowak, P.P. Lewicki, Quality of infrared dried apple slices. Dry. Technol. 23(4), 831–846 (2005)Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    R. Khir, Z. Pan, A. Salim, B.R. Hartsough, S. Mohamed, Moisture diffusivity of rough rice under infrared radiation drying. LWT-Food Sci. Technol. 44(4), 1126–1132 (2011)Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    A.R. Celma, S. Rojas, F. Lopez-Rodriguez, Mathematical modelling of thin-layer infrared drying of wet olive husk. Chem. Eng. Process. Process Intensif. 47(9–10), 1810–1818 (2008)Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    A.B. Jemai, E. Vorobiev, Enhanced leaching from sugar beet cossettes by pulsed electric field. J. Food Eng. 59(4), 405–412 (2003)Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    L. Khezami, A.B. Jemai, R. Capart, E. Vorobiev, Drying kinetics study of food pulps by continuous relative humidity measurements: air flowrate and electric field effects. Chem. Technol. 5(1), 45–50 (2010)Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    P.P. Lewicki, Design of hot air drying for better foods. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 17(4), 153–163 (2006)Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    M. Zhang, H. Jiang, R.-X. Lim, Recent developments in microwave-assisted drying of vegetables, fruits, and aquatic products—drying kinetics and quality considerations. Dry. Technol. 28(11), 1307–1316 (2010)Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    A.K.S. Chauhan, A.K. Srivastava, Optimizing drying conditions for vacuum-assisted microwave drying of green peas (Pisum sativum L.). Dry. Technol. 27(6), 761–769 (2009)Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    V.S. Kishan Kumar, N.K. Upreti, S. Gupta, Scope of vacuum press drying for fast removal of moisture below fiber saturation point. Dry. Technol. 34(10), 1204–1209 (2016)Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    M.R.I. Shishir, W. Chen, Trends of spray drying: a critical review on drying of fruit and vegetable juices. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 65, 49–67 (2017)Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    A.W. Galston, R.K. Sawhney, Polyamines in plant physiology. Plant Physiol. 94(2), 406–410 (1990)PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    J. Wang et al., Effect of high-humidity hot air impingement blanching (HHAIB) on drying and quality of red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). Food Chem. 220, 145–152 (2017)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    J.-W. Bai, D.-W. Sun, H.-W. Xiao, A.S. Mujumdar, Z.-J. Gao, Novel high-humidity hot air impingement blanching (HHAIB) pretreatment enhances drying kinetics and color attributes of seedless grapes. Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. 20, 230–237 (2013)Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    J. Wang et al., Effects of various blanching methods on weight loss, enzymes inactivation, phytochemical contents, antioxidant capacity, ultrastructure and drying kinetics of red bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). LWT-Food Sci. Technol. 77, 337–347 (2017)Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    M. Blasco, J.V. García-Pérez, J. Bon, J.E. Carreres, A. Mulet, Effect of blanching and air flow rate on turmeric drying. Food Sci. Technol. Int. 12(4), 315–323 (2006)Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    C. Kumar, M.A. Karim, M.U.H. Joardder, Intermittent drying of food products: a critical review. J. Food Eng. 121, 48–57 (2014)Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    M.F. Basanta, M.F. de Escalada Plá, C.A. Stortz, A.M. Rojas, Chemical and functional properties of cell wall polymers from two cherry varieties at two developmental stages. Carbohydr. Polym. 92(1), 830–841 (2013)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    F. Xu, X. Jin, L. Zhang, X.D. Chen, Investigation on water status and distribution in broccoli and the effects of drying on water status using NMR and MRI methods. Food Res. Int. 96, 191–197 (2017)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    G. Bingol, B. Wang, A. Zhang, Z. Pan, T.H. McHugh, Comparison of water and infrared blanching methods for processing performance and final product quality of French fries. J. Food Eng. 121, 135–142 (2014)Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    L.M. Ruiz-Ojeda, F.J. Peñas, Comparison study of conventional hot-water and microwave blanching on quality of green beans. Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. 20, 191–197 (2013)Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    F.A.N. Fernandes, M.I. Gallão, S. Rodrigues, Effect of osmotic dehydration and ultrasound pre-treatment on cell structure: melon dehydration. LWT-Food Sci. Technol. 41(4), 604–610 (2008)Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    S. De la Fuente-Blanco, E.R.-F. De Sarabia, V.M. Acosta-Aparicio, A. Blanco-Blanco, J.A. Gallego-Juárez, Food drying process by power ultrasound. Ultrasonics 44, e523–e527 (2006)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    K. Paakkonen, M. Mattila, Processing, packaging and storage effects on quality of freeze dried strawberries. J. Food Sci. 56, 1388–1392 (1991)Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    V.R. Sagar, P. Suresh Kumar, Recent advances in drying and dehydration of fruits and vegetables: a review. J. Food Sci. Technol. 47(1), 15–26 (2010)PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    H. Jiang et al., Comparison of the effect of microwave freeze drying and microwave vacuum drying upon the process and quality characteristics of potato/banana re-structured chips. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 46(3), 570–576 (2011)Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    N.P.J. Norman, H.H., Food Science (China Light Industry and C. Press, Beijing, 2001)Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    S.S. Sablani et al., Influence of shelf temperature on pore formation in garlic during freeze-drying. J. Food Eng. 80(1), 68–79 (2007)Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Z.W. Cui, C.Y. Li, C.F. Song, Y. Song, Combined microwave vacuum and freeze drying of carrot and apple chips. Dry. Technol. 26, 1517–1523 (2008)Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    C. Ratti, Hot air and freeze-drying of high-value foods: a review. J. Food Eng. 49(4), 311–319 (2001)Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    H. Toğrul, Simple modeling of infrared drying of fresh apple slices. J. Food Eng. 71(3), 311–323 (2005)Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    L.A. Ochoa-Martinez, J.G. Brennan, K. Niranjan, Spouted bed dryer for liquid foods. Food Control 4, 41–45 (1993)Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    I. Taruna, V.K. Jindal, Drying of soy pulp (okara) in a bed of inert particles. Dry. Technol. 20, 1035–1051 (2002)Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    K.J. Chua, S.K. Chou, New hybrid drying technologies, in Emerging Technologies for Food Processing, ed. by D.-W. Sun, (Elsevier Academic Press, London, 2005), pp. 535–551Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    B. Ye, C.J. Lim, J.R. Grace, Hydrodynamics of spouted and spoutfluidized beds at high temperature. Can. J. Chem. Eng. 70, 840–847 (1992)Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    R. Lopes da Cunha, A.G. de la Cruz, F.C. Menegalli, Effects of operating conditions on the quality of mango pulp dried in a spout fluidized bed. Dry. Technol. 24(4), 423–432 (2006)Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Z.V.P. Murthy, D. Joshi, Fluidized bed drying of aonla (Emblica officinalis). Dry. Technol. 25, 883–889 (2007)Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    K. Masters, Spray Drying Handbook, vol 5 (Longman Group, New York, 1991)Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    M.A. da Silva, R.A. Pinedo, T.G. Kieckbusch, Ascorbic acid thermal degradation during hot air drying of CAMU-CAMU (Myrciaria dubia [H.B.K.] McVaugh) slices at different air temperatures. Dry. Technol. 23(9–11), 2277–2287 (2005)Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    T.R. Bajgai, G.S.V. Raghavan, F. Hashinaga, M.O. Ngadi, Electrohydrodynamic drying—a concise overview. Dry. Technol. (7), 905–910 (2006, 24)Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    T.D. Bracken, Small air ion properties, in Air Ions: Physical and Biological Aspects, ed. by J. M. Chary, R. Kavet, (CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1987), pp. 1–12Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    D. Nowak, P.P. Lewicki, Infrared drying of apple slices. Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. 5(3), 353–360 (2004)Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    F. Lai, D.S. Wong, EHD-enhanced drying with needle electrode. Dry. Technol. 21(7), 1291–1306 (2003)Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    F. Hashinaga, T. Bajgai, S. Isobe, N.N. Barthakur, Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) drying of apple slices. Dry. Technol. 17(3), 479–495 (1999)Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    A. Singh, V. Orsat, V. Raghavan, A comprehensive review on electrohydrodynamic drying and high-voltage electric field in the context of food and bioprocessing. Dry. Technol. 30(16), 1812–1820 (2012)Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    F.D. Li, L.T. Li, J.F. Sun, E. Tatsumi, Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) drying characteristic of okara cake. Dry. Technol. 23(3), 565–580 (2005)Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Y. Chen, N.N. Barthakur, N.P. Arnold, Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) drying of potato slabs. J. Food Eng. 23(1), 107–119 (1994)Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    A.V. Mahn, P. Antoine, A. Reyes, Optimization of drying kinetics and quality parameters of broccoli florets. Int. J. Food Eng. 7(2) (2011)Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Saguy IS, Marabi A., Wallach R, Water imbibition in dry porous foods, in Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Engineering & Food, Montpellier, France.Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    S.J. Kowalski, D. Mierzwa, Hybrid drying of red bell pepper: energy and quality issues. Dry. Technol. 29(10), 1195–1203 (2011)Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    A.A. Adedeji, G. Tanya, M.O. Ngadi, R. GSV, Effect of pretreatments on drying characteristics of Okra. Dry. Technol. 26, 1251–1256 (2008)Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    M. Zhang et al., Trends in microwave-related drying of fruits and vegetables. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 17(10), 524–534 (2006)Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    J. Yongsawatdigul, S. Gunasekaran, Microwave vacuum drying of cranberries, part I: energy use and efficiency. J. Food Process. Preserv. 20(1), 121–143 (1996)Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    A.M. Goula, K.G. Adamopoulos, Retention of ascorbic acid during drying of tomato halves and tomato pulp. Dry. Technol. 24(1), 57–64 (2006)Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    P.H.M. Marfil, E.M. Santos, V.R.N. Telis, Ascorbic acid degradation kinetics in tomatoes at different drying conditions. Lwt-Food Sci. Technol. 41(9), 1642–1647 (2008)Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    B. Zanoni, C. Peri, R. Nani, V. Lavelli, Oxidative heat damage of tomato halves as affected by drying. Food Res. Int. 31, 395–401 (1999)Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    V. Lavelli, S. Hippeli, C. Peri, E.F. Elstner, Evaluation of radical scavenging activity of fresh and air-dried tomatoes by three model reactions. J. Agric. Food Chem. 47, 3826–3831 (1999)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    N.S. Kerkhofs, C.E. Lister, G.P. Savage, Change in colour and antioxidant content of tomato cultivars following forced-air drying. Plant Foods Hum. Nutr. 60, 117–121 (2005)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    M.M. Khin, W. Zhou, C.O. Perera, Impact of process conditions and coatings on the dehydration efficiency and cellular structure of apple tissue during osmotic dehydration. J. Food Eng. 79(3), 817–827 (2007)Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    M.L.M. Lopes, V.L. Valente Mesquita, A.C.N. Chiaradia, A.A.R. Fernandes, P. Fernandes, High hydrostatic pressure processing of tropical fruits. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1189(1), 6–15 (2010)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    G.E. Lombard, J.C. Oliveira, P. Fito, A. Andrés, Osmotic dehydration of pineapple as a pre-treatment for further drying. J. Food Eng. 85(2), 277–284 (2008)Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    L.F. Machado, R.N. Pereira, R.C. Martins, J.A. Teixeira, A.A. Vicente, Moderate electric fields can inactivate Escherichia coli at room temperature. J. Food Eng. 96(4), 520–527 (2010)Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    A.-L. Raoult-Wack, Recent advances in the osmotic dehydration of foods. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 5(8), 255–260 (1994)Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    E.A. Disalvo et al., Structural and functional properties of hydration and confined water in membrane interfaces. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (BBA) Biomembr. 1778(12), 2655–2670 (2008)Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    H. Liu, F. Chen, S. Lai, J. Tao, H. Yang, Z. Jiao, Effects of calcium treatment and low temperature storage on cell wall polysaccharide nanostructures and quality of postharvest apricot (Prunus armeniaca). Food Chem. 225, 87–97 (2017)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    G. Musielak, D. Mierzwa, J. Kroehnke, Food drying enhancement by ultrasound – a review. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 56, 126–141 (2016)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohammad U. H. Joardder
    • 1
  • Monjur Mourshed
    • 1
  • Mahadi Hasan Masud
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringRajshahi University of EngineeringRajshahiBangladesh

Personalised recommendations