Public Tolerance Levels of Transportation Resilience: A Focus on the Oresund Region Within the IMPROVER Project

  • Laura PetersenEmail author
  • Laure Fallou
  • Elisabete Carreira
  • Andrei Utkin
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 10707)


Maintaining a minimum level of service and recovering quickly after a crisis event are key components of infrastructure resilience. While no consensus exists on the precise meaning of these two terms, one way to measure them is to examine public tolerances of service levels and recovery time. However, few studies have empirically investigated public tolerance levels. This paper sets out to address this gap by examining Swedish public tolerance levels of the transportation sector through the use of an online questionnaire and comparing the results to the change in habits following the change in service of the Oresund Crossing due to the implementation of border controls in 2016 in response to the migrant crisis. The findings suggest that the public are willing to tolerate service reductions. Furthermore, declared expectations are well reflected in the habits of Oresund Crossing users, demonstrating the resilience of citizens in crisis situations.


Resilience Infrastructure Public tolerance 



The IMPROVER project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No. 653390.


  1. 1.
    Buller, A.: Closing the Gap: Expectations versus Capabilities. PA Times, 10 July 2015. Accessed 14 Mar 2016
  2. 2.
    Iannucci, B., et al.: A Survivable Social Network. IEEE 978-1-4799-1535-4/13 (2013). Accessed 7 Apr 2016
  3. 3.
    Kaufman, S., Qing, C., Levenson, N., Hanson, M.: Transportation during and after Hurricane Sandy, pp. 1–36. Rudin Center for Transportation NYU, Wagner Graduate School of Public Service, November 2012Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Nakanishi, H., Black, J., Matsuo, K.: Disaster resilience in transportation: Japan earthquake and tsunami 2011. Int. J. Disaster Resil. Built Environ. 5(4), 341–361 (2014). Scholar
  5. 5.
    Regional Australia Institute: From Recovery to Renewal: Case Study Reports, April 2013. Accessed 21 Apr 2016
  6. 6.
    Ioannou, I., et al.: IMPROVER Deliverable 2.1 Methodology for identifying hazard scenarios to assess the resilience of critical infrastructure (2016)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Oresund Institute: Fact Sheet: The Effects of the ID- and Border Checks between Scania and Zealand, 1 November 2016. Accessed 02 May 2017
  8. 8.
    BBC News: Sweden ends ID checks on ‘The Bridge’ with Denmark, 2 May 2017. Accessed 09 May 2017
  9. 9.
    Traub, J.: The death of the most generous nation on earth. Foreign Policy, 10 February 2016. Accessed 21 Apr 2016
  10. 10.
    BBC News: Migrant crisis: Sweden border checks come into force, 4 January 2016. Accessed 21 Apr 2016
  11. 11.
    Oresund Institute: Fakta: Effekterna av id- och gränskontroller mellan Skåne och Själland. Facts: The impact of identity cards and border controls between Scania and Zealand (2016). Accessed 22 Apr 2016
  12. 12.
    IndexMundi: Sweden Age Structure, 8 October 2016. Accessed 09 May 2017
  13. 13.
    Christian, W.: Swedish border control costing Oresund region big time. CPH Post (2016). Accessed 14 Apr 2016
  14. 14.
    Lisbeth, K.: Domino effect: Denmark follows Sweden on EU border checks. EUObserver (2016). Accessed 22 Apr 2016
  15. 15.
    Milne, R.: Oresund Bridge: barriers go up on corridor that unites Europe. Financial Times (2016). Accessed 26 Apr 2016
  16. 16.
    Savola, H.: Utvärdering av effekter av tillämpningen av förordning om vissa identitetskontroller. Evaluation of effects of the application of the Regulation on certain identity checks, 23 August 2016.
  17. 17.
    Trip Advisor: Oresund Bridge: Overview, Trip Advisor’s web page, continuously updated. Accessed 01 June 2016
  18. 18.
    Øresundsbro Konsortiet Q1 2016 result, Nasdaq: GlobeNewswire, 28 April 2016. Accessed 01 June 2016
  19. 19.
    Radio Sweden: Danish politician: Sweden should pay for ID checks (2015). Accessed 15 Apr 2016
  20. 20.
    Ullman-Hammer, C.: Øresundsbro Konsortiet Q1 2016 result. Øresundsbro Konsortiet, 28 April 2016. Accessed 04 May 2017
  21. 21.
    Holmqvist, S.: Taxi och hyrbilar ökar på Øresundsbron. Fokus Öresund, 10 March 2016. Accessed 21 Apr 2016
  22. 22.
    Oresundsbron: Traffic Statistics 2016, Øresundsbron Web site. Accessed 11 May 2017
  23. 23.
    Rørbæk, H.: Easter traffic alleviated the effect of ID controls in Q1, Scandlines, Hel-singborg-Helsingör, 27 April 2016. Accessed 11 May 2017

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Laura Petersen
    • 1
    Email author
  • Laure Fallou
    • 1
  • Elisabete Carreira
    • 2
  • Andrei Utkin
    • 2
  1. 1.EMSCArpajonFrance
  2. 2.INOVLisbonPortugal

Personalised recommendations