A Framework for Performance-Based Testing of Fresh Mixtures for Construction-Scale 3D Printing

  • Ali KazemianEmail author
  • Xiao Yuan
  • Ryan Meier
  • Behrokh Khoshnevis
Conference paper
Part of the RILEM Bookseries book series (RILEM, volume 19)


A step-by-step procedure for performance-based testing of mixtures for construction-scale 3D printing is proposed. Workability of a fresh “printing mixture” is described in terms of print quality, shape stability, robustness, and printability window. To demonstrate the proposed procedure and test methods, an experimental program is carried out using four different mixtures. The experimental results are used as the basis for discussion and comparison of performance of developed mixtures for use in construction-scale 3D printing. Finally, perspectives on the future research areas as critical steps for advancement of construction-scale 3D printing are provided.


3D printing Contour Crafting Cementitious materials Workability 


  1. 1.
    ASTM F2792-12a (withdrawn), American Society of Testing and Materials (2012)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Buswell, R.A., Soar, R.C., Gibb, A.G., Thorpe, A.: Freeform construction application research. In: Advances in Engineering Structures, Mechanics & Construction, pp. 773–780 (2006)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Khoshnevis, B.: Automated construction by contour crafting-related robotics and information technologies. Autom. Constr. 13(1), 5–19 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Naboni, R., Paoletti, I.: Advanced Customization in Architectural Design and Construction. Springer, Berlin (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Wangler, T., Lloret, E., Reiter, L., Hack, N., Gramazio, F., Kohler, M., Bernhard, M., Dillenburger, B., Buchli, J., Rousel, N., Flatt, R.: Digital concrete: opportunities and challenges. RILEM Tech. Lett. 1, 67–75 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wolfs, R.: 3D Printing of Concrete Structures. Eindhoven University of Technology (2015)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Perrot, A., Rangeard, D., Pierre, A.: Structural built-up of cement-based materials used for 3D-printing extrusion techniques. Mater. Struct. 49(4), 1213–1220 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Le, T.T., Austin, S.A., Lim, S., Buswell, R.A., Gibb, A.G.F., Thorpe, T.: Mix design and fresh properties for high-performance printing concrete. Mater. Struct. 45, 1221–1232 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Shah, S.: Design and Application of Low Compaction Energy Concrete for Use in Slip-Form Concrete Paving. Infrastructure Technology Institute, Northwestern University (2008)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Voigt, T., Mbele, J., Wang, K., Shah, S.: Using fly ash, clay, and fibers for simultaneous improvement of concrete green strength and consolidatability for slip-form pavement. J. Mater. Civ. Eng. 22(2), 196–206 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kazemian, A., Yuan, X., Meier, R., Cochran, E., Khoshnevis, B.: Construction-scale 3D printing: shape stability of fresh printing concrete. In: 12th International Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference (MSEC 2017), Los Angeles (2017)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Nerella, V., Krause, M., Nather, M., Mechtcherine, V.: Studying printability of fresh concrete for formwork free concrete on-site 3D printing technology (CONPrint3D). In: 25th Conference on Rheology of Building Materials, Regensburg (2016)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Anell, L.: Concrete 3D printer. Lund University, Sweden (2015)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ma, G., Wang, L.: A critical review of preparation design and workability measurement of concrete material for largescale 3D printing. Front. Struct. Civ. Eng. 12(3), 382–400 (2018)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
  16. 16.
    Ramezanianpour, A.A., Zolfagharnasab, A., Zadeh, F.B., Hasanpour, S., Boushehri, R., Pourebrahimi, M.R., Ramezanianpour, A.M.: Effect of supplementary cementing materials on concrete resistance against sulfuric acid attack. In: Hordijk, D., Luković, M. (eds.) High Tech Concrete: Where Technology and Engineering Meet, pp. 2290–2298. Springer, Cham (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ramezanianpour, A., Kazemian, A., Moghaddam, M., Moodi, F., Ramezanianpour, A.: Studying effects of low-reactivity GGBFS on chloride resistance of conventional and high strength concretes. Mater. Struct. 49(7), 2597–2609 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ramezanianpour, A., Ghiasvand, E., Nickseresht, I., Moodi, F., Kamel, M.: Engineering properties and durability of concretes containing limestone cements. In: Second International Conference on Sustainable Construction Materials and Technologies, Coventry University and UWM Center for By-Products Utilization (2010)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kawashima, S., Chaouche, M., Corr, D.J., Shah, S.P.: Influence of purified attapulgite clays on the adhesive properties of cement pastes as measured by the tack test. Cem. Concr. Compos. 48, 35–41 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kawashima, S., Chaouche, M., Corr, D.J., Shah, S.P.: Rate of thixotropic rebuilding of cement pastes modified with highly purified attapulgite clays. Cem. Concr. Res. 53, 112–118 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kim, J., Beacraft, M., Shah, S.P.: Effect of mineral admixtures on formwork pressure of self-consolidating concrete. Cem. Concr. Compos. 32(9), 665–671 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kazemian, A., Yuan, X., Cochran, E., Khoshnevis, B.: Cementitious materials for construction-scale 3D printing: laboratory testing of fresh printing mixture. Constr. Build. Mater. 145, 639–647 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
  24. 24.
  25. 25.
    Josserand, L., Coussy, O., Larrard, F.D.: Bleeding of concrete as an ageing consolidation process. Cem. Concr. Res. 36(9), 1603–1608 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Roussel, N., Ovarlez, G., Garrault, S., Brumaud, C.: The origins of thixotropy of fresh cement pastes. Cem. Concr. Res. 42(1), 148–157 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Roussel, N.: A thixotropy model for fresh fluid concretes: theory, validation and applications. Cem. Concr. Res. 36, 1797–1806 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Wallevik, J.: Thixotropic investigation on cement paste: experimental and numerical approach. J. Nonnewton. Fluid Mech. 132, 86–99 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Wallevik, J.: Rheological properties of cement paste: thixotropic behavior and structural breakdown. Cem. Concr. Res. 39(1), 14–29 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Heirman, G.: Modelling and quantification of the effect of mineral additions on the rheology of fresh powder tupe self-compacting concrete. Arenberg Doctoral School of Science, Engineering and Technology (2011)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Khayat, K., De Schutter, G.: Mechanical properties of self-compacting concrete. RILEM Technical Committee TC 228-MPS (2013)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ghoddousi, P., Salehi, A.M.: The robustness of self consolidating concrete due to changes in mixing water. Period. Polytech. Civ. Eng. 61(2), 216–225 (2017)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    The European Guidelines for Self-Compacting Concrete: Specification, Production and Use, 1 May 2005.

Copyright information

© RILEM 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ali Kazemian
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Xiao Yuan
    • 3
  • Ryan Meier
    • 1
  • Behrokh Khoshnevis
    • 1
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.The Sonny Astani Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringUniversity of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.Department of Computer ScienceUniversity of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  3. 3.Contour Crafting CorporationEl SegundoUSA
  4. 4.Department of Industrial and Systems EngineeringUniversity of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA

Personalised recommendations