Advertisement

Experience in Online Modification of Rheology and Strength Acquisition of 3D Printable Mortars

  • V. EsnaultEmail author
  • A. Labyad
  • M. Chantin
  • F. Toussaint
Conference paper
  • 1.5k Downloads
Part of the RILEM Bookseries book series (RILEM, volume 19)

Abstract

This study focus on the early age properties of two mortar formulations designed for a 3D printing extrusion process. They follow a new design and process strategy, which consists in formulating a mortar to be self-levelling, to optimize pumpability, and then incorporating an additive in the extrusion nozzle to modify rheology properties and setting properties to adapt it to the requirement of the printing process (self-sustaining as soon as the material exits the nozzle, and fast strength acquisition). Two types of additives are considered: an alkali-free shotcrete accelerator and a starch ether based VMA. Compression and shear strength measurements from 2 min to 4 h after the incorporation of the additive demonstrate the capacity of the method to create mortars with strength acquisition vastly superior to results from the literature. Lab-scale extrusion and operational feedback from 3D printing customers demonstrate the feasibility at operational scale. The variety of properties obtainable by playing with different types of additives is also discussed.

Keywords

3D printing Formulation Extrusion process 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The resulted presented in this study are originated in the research project HINDCON (Hybrid INDustrial CONstruction) funded by the European Commission (Grant Agreement n°723611).

References

  1. 1.
    Koshnevis, B.: Innovative rapid prototyping process making large size, smooth surface complex shapes in a wide variety of materials. Mater. Technol. 13, 52–63 (1998)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Koshnevis, B., et al.: Mega-scale fabrication by contour crafting. Int. J. Ind. Syst. Eng. 1, 301–320 (2006)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Buswell, R.A., et al.: Freeform construction: mega-scale rapid manufacturing for construction. Autom. Constr. 16, 224–231 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bos, F., et al.: Additive manufacturing of concrete in construction: potentials and challenges of 3D concrete printing. Virtual Phys. Prototyp. 11, 209–225 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Le, T.T., et al.: Mix design and fresh properties for high performance printing concrete. Mater. Struct. 45, 1221–1232 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Di Carlo, T.: Experimental and numerical techniques to characterize structural properties of fresh concrete relevant to contour crafting. Ph.D. thesis, University of Southern California (2012)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Paul, S.C., et al.: Fresh and hardened properties of 3D printable cementitious materials for building and construction. Arch. Civ. Mech. Eng. 18, 311–319 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gosselin, C., et al.: Large scale 3D printing of ultra-high performance concrete – a new processing route for architect and builder. Mater. Des. 100, 102–109 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Perrot, A., et al.: Structural build-up of cement based materials used for 3D printing extrusion techniques. Mater. Struct. 49, 1213–1220 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wolfs, R.J.M., et al.: Early age mechanical behaviour of 3D printed concrete: numerical modelling and experimental testing. Cem. Concr. Res. 106, 103–116 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Schutz, R.J.: Properties of shotcrete admixtures. In: Shotcrete for Ground Support, Proceedings of the Engineering Foundation Conference, Easton (1977)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Paglia, C.: The influence of calcium sulfo aluminate as accelerating component within cementitious systems. Ph.D., ETH Zürich (2000)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lootens, et al.: Some peculiar chemistry aspects of shotcrete accelerators. In: Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Microstructure Related Durability of Cementitious Composites, Nanjing pp. 1255–1261. RILEM Publications S.A.R.L. (2008)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Eberhardt, A.B., et al.: On the retardation caused by some stabilizers in alkali free accelerators. In: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Building Materials, Weimar (2009)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Palacios, M., Flatt, R.J.: Working mechanism of viscosity modifying admixtures. In: Science and Technology of Concrete Admixtures, pp. 415–432. Woodhead Publishing (2016)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Brumaux, C., et al.: Cellulose ethers and yield stress of cement pastes. Cem. Concr. Res. 55, 14–21 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Khayat, K.H.: Viscosity-enhancing admixtures for cement-based materials – an overview. Cem. Concr. Compos. 2, 171–188 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Khayat K.H., Ghezal, A.: Effect of viscosity-modifying admixture-superplasticizer combination on flow properties of SCC equivalent motar. In: 3rd International RILEM Symposium on Self-Compacting Concrete, pp. 369–385 (2003)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Simonides, H., Terpstra, J.: Use of innovative starch ethers for paving blocks and other concrete products. Concr. Plant Precast Technol. 9, 38–45 (2007)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rajayogan, V., Santhanam, M., Sarma, B.S.: Evaluation of hydroxy propyl starch as a viscosity-modifying agent for self compacting concrete. In: 3rd International RILEM Symposium on Self-Compacting Concrete, pp. 386–394 (2003)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Schmidt, W., et al.: The working mechanism of starch and Diutan gum in cementitious and limestone dispersions in presence of polycarboxylate ether superplasticizers. Appl. Rheol. 23(5), 52903 (2013)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Palacios, M.. et al.: Compatibility Between Polycarboxylate and Viscosity-Modifying Admixtures in Cement Pastes. American Concrete Institute, ACI Special Publication, pp. 29–42 (2012)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Schmidt, W., et al.: Interactions of polysaccharide stabilizing agents with early cement hydration without and in the presence of superplasticizers. Constr. Build. Mater. 139, 584–593 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Suiker, A.S.J.: Mechanical performance of wall structures in 3D printing processes: theory, desing tools and experiments. Int. J. Mech. Sci. 137, 145–170 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Roussel, N., et al.: The origin of thixotropy of fresh cement pastes. Cem. Concr. Res. 42, 148–157 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© RILEM 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • V. Esnault
    • 1
    Email author
  • A. Labyad
    • 1
  • M. Chantin
    • 1
  • F. Toussaint
    • 1
  1. 1.Lafarge Centre de RechercheSaint Quentin FallavierFrance

Personalised recommendations