Large Scale Testing of Digitally Fabricated Concrete (DFC) Elements

  • Freek BosEmail author
  • Rob Wolfs
  • Zeeshan Ahmed
  • Theo Salet
Conference paper
Part of the RILEM Bookseries book series (RILEM, volume 19)


Case study projects based on Digitally Fabricated Concrete (DFC) are presented in an increasing pace around the globe. Generally, though, it is not reported what structural requirements (if any) these structures meet and how compliance to these requirements was established. Published material research is often not connected to the presented case studies, and even when it is, it is not necessarily obvious their small scale results can be applied to full scale structures as some scale effects should be anticipated. Caution is required as DFC related material tests are still under development and scale effects in DFC have hardly been studied. Therefore, it is recommendable to perform large scale testing, in the range of 1:5 to 1:1, if DFC is applied to actual use structures. This paper presents such testing for two projects, a pavilion in Denmark (not realized) and a bridge in the Netherlands (realized). In both cases, elements printed with the 3D Concrete Printing facility of the Eindhoven University of Technology were intended for actual load bearing performance. The conservative designs past the test requirements, but nevertheless some important findings with regard to element manufacturing and structural behaviour were experienced. It is concluded that large scale testing remains advisable for DFC structures as long as not all relevant aspects of the technology are quantitatively understood, at least when new concepts are being applied.


3D Concrete Printing (3DCP) Experimental testing Scale effect Additive manufacturing 



The following partners were involved in the Nyborg Pavilion project:

- Client: Nyborg municipality, Denmark,

- Architect: I. Moltke, Denmark,

- Structural engineering: Witteveen+Bos, the Netherlands,

- Research, print design and manufacturing of printed elements: Eindhoven University of Technology, the Netherlands,

- Material supplier print mortar: Saint-Gobain Weber Beamix, the Netherlands.

- In the 3D concrete printed bicycle bridge project, the partners were:

- Client: Province Noord-Brabant, the Netherlands,

- General contractor, initiator: BAM Infra, the Netherlands,

- Structural design and engineering: Witteveen+Bos consulting engineers, the Netherlands,

- Research, print design and manufacturing of printed elements: Eindhoven University of Technology, the Netherlands,

- Material supplier print mortar: Saint-Gobain Weber Beamix, the Netherlands,

- Prestress system and application: Dywidag, the Netherlands,

- Reinforcement cable supplier: Bekaert N, Belgium.


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Copyright information

© RILEM 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Freek Bos
    • 1
    Email author
  • Rob Wolfs
    • 1
  • Zeeshan Ahmed
    • 1
  • Theo Salet
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Eindhoven University of TechnologyEindhovenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Witteveen+Bos Consulting EngineersDeventerThe Netherlands

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