Three-Dimensional Printing Multifunctional Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECC) for Structural Elements

  • Yi Bao
  • Mingfeng Xu
  • Daniel Soltan
  • Tian Xia
  • Albert Shih
  • Herek L. Clack
  • Victor C. LiEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the RILEM Bookseries book series (RILEM, volume 19)


Three-dimensional printing (3DP) has great potential to facilitate fabrication of structures with smart functions. This research aims to develop an effective and efficient method to fabricate multifunctional structural elements using Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECC) through 3DP. To this end, ECC slabs measuring 304.8 mm by 76.2 mm by 12.7 mm (length by width by thickness) are prepared for experimental testing. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles are incorporated in the slabs to deliver photocatalytic functionality for chemical reduction of gaseous air pollutants. Two schemes for incorporating titanium dioxide nanoparticles into the ECC slabs are investigated and compared. 3DP is employed to fabricate the slabs and compared with the conventional cast-in-mold fabrication method. The photocatalytic functionality of different slabs is evaluated through nitrogen oxides abatement testing under ultraviolet light. The concentration of nitrogen oxides is measured in real time. After the nitrogen oxides abatement testing, all slabs are tested to failure under four-point bending to evaluate their flexural properties. The results show that 3DP is promising to fabricate multifunctional ECC structural elements with improved efficiency.


Engineered Cementitious Composite Functionally-graded composite Multifunctional element Photocatalysis Three-dimensional printing 



This research is funded by the University of Michigan MCubed cross-disciplinary research funding program for innovative, multi-disciplinary collaborative research.


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Copyright information

© RILEM 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yi Bao
    • 1
  • Mingfeng Xu
    • 1
  • Daniel Soltan
    • 1
  • Tian Xia
    • 1
  • Albert Shih
    • 1
  • Herek L. Clack
    • 1
  • Victor C. Li
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.University of MichiganAnn ArborUSA

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