Advertisement

Three-Dimensional Printing Multifunctional Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECC) for Structural Elements

  • Yi Bao
  • Mingfeng Xu
  • Daniel Soltan
  • Tian Xia
  • Albert Shih
  • Herek L. Clack
  • Victor C. LiEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the RILEM Bookseries book series (RILEM, volume 19)

Abstract

Three-dimensional printing (3DP) has great potential to facilitate fabrication of structures with smart functions. This research aims to develop an effective and efficient method to fabricate multifunctional structural elements using Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECC) through 3DP. To this end, ECC slabs measuring 304.8 mm by 76.2 mm by 12.7 mm (length by width by thickness) are prepared for experimental testing. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles are incorporated in the slabs to deliver photocatalytic functionality for chemical reduction of gaseous air pollutants. Two schemes for incorporating titanium dioxide nanoparticles into the ECC slabs are investigated and compared. 3DP is employed to fabricate the slabs and compared with the conventional cast-in-mold fabrication method. The photocatalytic functionality of different slabs is evaluated through nitrogen oxides abatement testing under ultraviolet light. The concentration of nitrogen oxides is measured in real time. After the nitrogen oxides abatement testing, all slabs are tested to failure under four-point bending to evaluate their flexural properties. The results show that 3DP is promising to fabricate multifunctional ECC structural elements with improved efficiency.

Keywords

Engineered Cementitious Composite Functionally-graded composite Multifunctional element Photocatalysis Three-dimensional printing 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research is funded by the University of Michigan MCubed cross-disciplinary research funding program for innovative, multi-disciplinary collaborative research.

References

  1. 1.
    Bos, F., Wolfs, R., Ahmed, Z., Salet, T.: Additive manufacturing of concrete in construction: potentials and challenges of 3D concrete printing. Virtual Phys. Prototyp. 11(3), 209–225 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lim, S., Buswell, R.A., Le, T.T., Austin, S.A., Gibb, A., Thorpe, T.: Developments in construction-scale additive manufacturing processes. Automat. Constr. 21, 262–268 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gosselin, C., Duballet, R., Roux, P., Gaudillière, N., Dirrenberger, J., Morel, Ph: Large-scale 3D printing of ultra-high performance concrete – a new processing route for architects and builders. Mater. Des. 100, 102–109 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Tay, Y.W.D., Panda, B., Paul, S.C., Mohamed, N., Tan, M.J., Leong, K.F.: 3D printing trends in building and construction industry: a review. Virtual Phys. Prototyp. 1–16(2017) Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Pegna, J.: Exploratory investigation of solid freeform construction. Autom. Constr. 5(5), 427–437 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hambach, M., Volkmer, D.: Properties of 3D-printed fiber-reinforced Portland cement paste. Cem. Concr. Compos. 79, 62–70 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wu, P., Wang, J., Wang, X.: A critical review of the use of 3D printing in the construction industry. Autom. Constr. 68, 21–31 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Barnett, E., Gosselin, C.: Large-scale 3D printing with a cable-suspended robot. Addit. Manuf. 7, 27–44 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Rudenko, A.: 3D Concrete House Printer (2017). http://www.totalkustom.com
  10. 10.
    Starr, M.: Dubai unveils world’s first 3D-printed office building (2016). http://www.cnet.com/news/dubai-unveils-worlds-first-3d-printed-office-building
  11. 11.
    Starr, M.: World’s first 3D-printed apartment building constructed in China (2016). https://www.cnet.com/news/worlds-first-3d-printed-apartment-building-constructed-in-china
  12. 12.
  13. 13.
    Salet, T.: 3D Concrete printing – a journey with destination unknown. Invited presentation at NSF Workshop on Additive Manufacturing for Civil Infrastructure Design and Construction, Arlington, 13–14 July 2017Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Le, T.T., Austin, S.A., Lim, S., Buswell, R.A., Gibb, A., Thorpe, T.: Mix design and fresh properties for high-performance printing concrete. Mater. Struct. 45, 1221–1232 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kazemian, A., Yuan, X., Cochran, E., Khoshnevis, B.: Cementitious materials for construction-scale 3D printing: laboratory testing of fresh printing mixture. Const. Build. Mater. 145, 639–647 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Soltan, D.G., Li, V.C.: A self-reinforced cementitious composite for building-scale 3D printing. Cem. Concr. Compos. 90, 1–13 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wang, S.: Micromechanics Based Matrix Design for Engineered Cementitious Composites. University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (2005)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Fischer, G., Li, V.C.: Deformation behavior of fiber-reinforced polymer reinforced engineered cementitious composite (ECC) flexural members under reversed cyclic loading conditions. ACI Struct. J. 100(1), 25–35 (2003)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Fischer, G., Li, V.C.: Advanced composite materials in flexural members for auto-adaptive structural response modification. In: 1st FIB Congress Concrete Structures, pp. 147–156 (2002)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Li, X., Bao, Y., Xue, N., Chen, G.: Bond strength of steel bars embedded in high-performance fiber-reinforced cementitious composite before and after exposure to elevated temperatures. Fire Safety J. 92, 98–106 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Li, M., Ranade, R., Kan, L., Li, V.C.: On improving the infrastructure service life using ECC to mitigate rebar corrosion. In: 2nd International Symposium on Service Life Design for Infrastructure, vol. 1, pp. 1–8 (2010)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Li, X., Wang, J., Bao, Y., Chen, G.: Cyclic behavior of damaged reinforced concrete columns repaired with high-performance fiber-reinforced cementitious composite. Eng. Struct. 136, 26–35 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Stang, H., Li, V.C.: Extrusion of ECC-material. In: Proceedings of High Performance Fiber Reinforced Cement Composites 3 (HPFRCC 3), pp. 203–212 (1999)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kong, H.J., Bike, S., Li, V.C.: Constitutive rheological control to develop a self-consolidating engineered cementitious composite reinforced with hydrophilic poly(vinyl alcohol) fibers. Cem. Concr. Compos. 25(3), 333–341 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kim, Y.Y., Kong, H.J., Li, V.C.: Design of an engineered cementitious composite (ECC) suitable for wet-mix shotcreting. ACI Mater. J. 100(6), 511–518 (2004)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Zhao, A., Yang, J., Yang, E.: Self-cleaning engineered cementitious composites. Cem. Concr. Compos. 64, 74–83 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kawashima, S., Chaouche, M., Corr, D.J., Shah, S.P.: Rate of thixotropic rebuilding of cement pastes modified with highly purified attapulgite clays. Cem. Concr. Res. 53, 112–118 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    ASTM Standard Volume C, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PAGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Japanese Society of Civil Engineers (JSCE). Recommendations for Design and Construction of High Performance Fiber Reinforced Cement Composites with Multiple Fine Cracks (HPFRCC), Japan (2008)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© RILEM 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yi Bao
    • 1
  • Mingfeng Xu
    • 1
  • Daniel Soltan
    • 1
  • Tian Xia
    • 1
  • Albert Shih
    • 1
  • Herek L. Clack
    • 1
  • Victor C. Li
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.University of MichiganAnn ArborUSA

Personalised recommendations