Advertisement

Biocultural Exoticism in the Feminine Landscape of Latin America

  • Angelina Paredes-Castellanos
  • Ricardo Rozzi
Chapter
Part of the Ecology and Ethics book series (ECET, volume 3)

Abstract

The colonial language “of the imperial eye” about Latin America is summarized in an exotic myth about the landscape, which today combines with Western globalization at its ecological crossroads. Latin America offers a key hermeneutic for analysis, because it exposes aesthetic ideological roots that accompany biocultural homogenization. In the twentieth century, orientalism came to be criticized for perpetuating a false, Western colonial image of the East. Here, we focus on Latin American exoticism by critically examining themes of feminized geographic landscapes. We review epistemological, aesthetic, and ethical alternatives to the exoticism of Latin American landscapes and bodies as seen by the “imperial eye.” Latin American artistic, literary, and political concepts and movements have been taking seriously landscapes and bodies, enabling a critique of the exotic. These expressions also offer an alternative, post-exotic, eco-epistemology, and aesthetic hermeneutic to the negative hermeneutic or the curse that resulted from the colonial expansion of Europe and the new postmodern biocultural homogenization or biocultural exoticization imposed by Western globalization. We emphasize intimate associations between ecological contexts and social practices to revalue the geographies and co-inhabitants, including the political subjects, their identities, and their cultures. A major contribution offered by Latin American environmental arts, thoughts, and movements is the understanding of nature as a great body in which we co-inhabit.

Keywords

Biocultural homogenization Biocultural conservation Colonialism Ecofeminism Globalization 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank the valuable, and many editions by Roy May, and the critical comments by Francisca Massardo and Irene Klaver who helped improving this chapter. Angelina thanks also the Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Mexico, and the Institute of Ecology and Biodiversity (IEB-Chile; grant Financiamiento Basal CONICYT AFB170008) and Universidad de Magallanes for the support that allowed her to conduct research at the Omora Ethnobotanical Park in the Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve , in Chile.

References

  1. Acosta A, Martínez E (eds) (2009) El Buen Vivir. Una vía para el desarrollo. Ediciones Abya Yala, QuitoGoogle Scholar
  2. Aillapan L, Rozzi R (2001) Veinte Poemas Alados de los Bosques Nativos del Sur de Chile. Editorial Plaza y Valdés, México CityGoogle Scholar
  3. Aillapan L, Rozzi R (2004) Una etno-ornitología mapuche contemporánea: Poemas alados de los bosques nativos de Chile. Ornitología Neotropical 15(Suppl):419–434Google Scholar
  4. Báez C, Mason P (2006) Zoológicos Humanos, fotografías de fueguinos y mapuche en el jardín d’acclimatation de París, siglo XIX. Pehuen, SantiagoGoogle Scholar
  5. Chavarría-Zamora MJ (2013) Construcciones/Invenciones. De la Suiza Centroamericana al país más feliz del mundo. Museo de Arte y Diseño Contemporáneo, MADC, San JoséGoogle Scholar
  6. Chavarría MJ (ed) (2016) Joaquin Rodriguez del Paso, Super Moderno. San José, Costa Rica, Diseño ContemporáneoGoogle Scholar
  7. Callicott JB (1997) Earth’s insights: a multicultural survey of ecological ethics from the Mediterranean Basin to the Australian outback. University of California Press, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  8. de Alencar MJ (2000) Iracema. Barcelona, Ediciones ObeliscoGoogle Scholar
  9. Dobson A (2003) Citizenship and the environment. Oxford University Press, OxfordCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Espinosa-Miñoso Y (2009) 12 de octubre: conmemorar la violación originaria. Suplemento Pan y Rosas 12(September)Google Scholar
  11. Estermann J (2011) Filosofía andina. Sabiduría indígena para un nuevo mundo. Plural, La PazGoogle Scholar
  12. Galeano E (2011) Las venas abiertas de América Latina. México DF, Siglo XXIGoogle Scholar
  13. Giraudo V (2016) Antropofagia y modernidad, Arte brasileño en la colección Fadel. MALBA/Museo de Arte Nacional, Buenos Aires/MéxicoGoogle Scholar
  14. Gross T (ed) (1989) Fight for the forest—Chico Mendes in his own words. Latin America Bureau, LondonGoogle Scholar
  15. Grün M (2012) Ética E Educação Ambiental: a Conexão Necessária. Papirus, Campinas/Sao PauloGoogle Scholar
  16. Gudynas E (2009a) El mandato ecológico, Derechos de la Naturaleza y políticas ambientales en la nueva Constitución. Ediciones Abya Yala, EcuadorGoogle Scholar
  17. Gudynas E (2009b) Ciudadania ambiental y meta-ciudadanias ecológicas:revision y alternativas en America Latina. Desenvolvimento e Meio Ambiente 19:53–72Google Scholar
  18. Mamani-Bernabe V, Quispe-Huanca C (2007) Pacha. Editorial Verbo Divino SRL – Bolivia, La PazGoogle Scholar
  19. Merleau-Ponty M (1975) Fenomenología de la percepción, tr. Jem Cabanes. Ediciones Península, BarcelonaGoogle Scholar
  20. Mignolo WD (2007) La idea de América Latina, la herida colonial y la opción decolonial. Gedisa, BarcelonaGoogle Scholar
  21. Núñez-Becerra F (2002) La Malinche, de la historia al mito. Divulgación serie Historia, INAH, México DFGoogle Scholar
  22. Paredes-Castellanos A (2017) “América Latina Exótica”: Hermenéutica Ecoestética de la Naturaleza y el Cuerpo. Una Aproximación al tema. Doctoral Dissertation in Philosophy, Instituto de Investigaciones Filosóficas “Luis Villoro”, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Morelia, Michoacán, MexicoGoogle Scholar
  23. Pratt ML (2010) Ojos imperiales. Literatura de Viajes y Transculturación, tr. Ofelia Castillo. Fondo de Cultura Económica, México DFGoogle Scholar
  24. Primack R, Rozzi R, Feinsinger P, Dirzo R, Massardo F (2006) Fundamentos de Conservación Biológica: Perspectivas Latinoamericanas. Fondo de Cultura Económica, México D.FGoogle Scholar
  25. Rozzi R (2004) Implicaciones éticas de narrativas yaganes y mapuches sobre las aves de los bosques templados de Sudamérica austral. Ornitología Neotropical 15:435–444Google Scholar
  26. Rozzi R (2001) Éticas ambientales latinoamericanas: raíces y ramas. In: Primack R, Rozzi R, Feinsinger P, Dirzo R, Massardo F (eds) Fundamentos de Conservación Biológica: Perspectivas Latinoamericanas. Fondo de Cultura Económica, Mexico DF, pp 311–362Google Scholar
  27. Rozzi R (2012a) Biocultural ethics: the vital links between the inhabitants, their habits and regional habitats. Environ Ethics 34:27–50Google Scholar
  28. Rozzi R (2012b) South American environmental philosophy: ancestral Amerindian roots and emergent academic branches. Environ Ethics 34:343–365Google Scholar
  29. Rozzi R (2013) Biocultural ethics: from biocultural homogenization toward biocultural conservation. In: Rozzi R, STA P, Palmer C, Armesto JJ, Callicott JB (eds) Linking ecology and ethics for a changing world: values, philosophy, and action. Ecology and ethics, vol 1. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 9–32Google Scholar
  30. Rozzi R (2015a) Implications of the biocultural ethic for earth stewardship. In: Rozzi R, Chapin FS, Callicott JB, Pickett STA, Power ME, Armesto JJ, May RH Jr (eds) Earth stewardship: linking ecology and ethics in theory and practice. Ecology and ethics, vol 2. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 113–136Google Scholar
  31. Rozzi R (2015b) Earth stewardship and the biocultural ethic: Latin American perspectives. In: Rozzi R, Chapin FS, Callicott JB, Pickett STA, Power ME, Armesto JJ, May RH Jr (eds) Earth stewardship: linking ecology and ethics in theory and practice. Ecology and ethics, vol 2. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 87–112Google Scholar
  32. Rozzi R, Arango X, Massardo F, Anderson C, Heidinger K, Moses K (2008) Field environmental philosophy and biocultural conservation: the Omora Ethnobotanical Park educational program. Environ Ethics 30:325–336Google Scholar
  33. Rozzi R, Armesto JJ, Gutiérrez J, Massardo F, Likens G, Anderson CB, Poole A, Moses K, Hargrove G, Mansilla A, Kennedy JH, Willson M, Jax K, Jones C, Callicott JB, Kalin MT (2012) Integrating ecology and environmental ethics: earth stewardship in the southern end of the Americas. BioScience 62(3):226–236Google Scholar
  34. Said WE (2016) Orientalismo, tr. María Luisa Fuentes, Penguin Random House, Debolsillo, México DFGoogle Scholar
  35. Segalen V (1989) Ensayo sobre el exotismo. Una estética de lo diverso (y textos sobre Gauguin y Oceanía. Fondo de Cultura Económica, México DFGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Angelina Paredes-Castellanos
    • 1
  • Ricardo Rozzi
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Facultad de FilosofíaUniversidad Michoacana San Nicolás de HidalgoMoreliaMéxico
  2. 2.Department of Philosophy and Religion and Department of Biological SciencesUniversity of North TexasDentonUSA
  3. 3.Sub-Antarctic Biocultural Conservation ProgramUniversity of North TexasDentonUSA
  4. 4.Instituto de Ecología y Biodiversidad and Universidad de MagallanesPunta ArenasChile

Personalised recommendations