Pain pp 87-90 | Cite as

Special Features of Pain Studies

  • Craig T. HartrickEmail author


The study of pain is challenging. As pain is interpreted as a personal, multidimensional experience, difficulties arise in defining pain, measuring pain, and interpreting outcomes. Care must be exercised in understanding how to handle variables to avoid misinterpretation and in appreciating the practical value of accuracy over precision if the results of the study are to be clinically relevant.


Pain measurement Categorical pain scales Ratio pain scales Multidimensional pain scales Randomized clinical trials Observational studies 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Health Sciences (Pharmacology)Oakland UniversityRochesterUSA

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