Advertisement

Pain pp 83-85 | Cite as

Components of Clinical Trials

  • Aaron S. HessEmail author
  • Alaa Abd-Elsayed
Chapter

Abstract

A clinical trial is an experiment applied to living participants in order to test some means of treatment, diagnosis or prevention. A clinical trial applies an experimental intervention to one or more groups of participants and compares it to a control group (a standard intervention, placebo or nothing). Randomization of assignment, blinding of investigators and participants are critical techniques to reduce bias. Clinical trials are the clearest means of establishing causality in disease and patient care, including both desired outcomes and adverse effects.

Keywords

Clinical trials Randomization Experimental studies Prospective studies 

References

  1. 1.
    Friedman L, Furberg C, DeMets D, Reboussin D, Granger C. Fundamentals of clinical trials. 5th ed. New York: Springer; 2015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Woodward M. Epidemiology study design and data analysis, vol. 257. 3rd ed. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2013. p. 294.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Rothman K. Modern epidemiology, vol. 89. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: LWW; 2008. p. 92.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Schulz K, Altman D, Moher D, for the CONSORT Group. CONSORT 2010 statement: updated guidelines for reporting parallel group randomised trials. Br Med J. 2010;340:c332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of AnesthesiologyUniversity of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public HealthMadisonUSA

Personalised recommendations