Advertisement

The Context of Sustainable Urban Transport

  • Jean MercierEmail author
  • Fanny Tremblay-Racicot
  • Mario Carrier
  • Fábio Duarte
Chapter
  • 124 Downloads

Abstract

In this chapter, the authors look at the three main challenges that cities and metropolitan areas face in dealing with the challenge of sustainable transport. In the context of increasing liberal values and privatization policies, they face a planning challenge, at a time when government intervention is seen as lacking in efficiency. Second, the cities face an extending urban landscape, with a fragmenting spatial configuration that is not conducive to public transport. Third, cities face a public policy challenge, due to the fact that an increasing variety and number of stakeholders demand that their point of view be heard and considered. Drawing from public policy and political studies literature, Mercier and his colleagues then identify two policy configurations to deal with these challenges, the government (more top-down) mode, and the governance (more horizontal, participative) mode. Building on the differences between these two styles of public policy, the authors then propose a model of policy instruments which can be helpful in ascertaining the contribution of these two policy configuration in attaining sustainable urban transport.

Keywords

Urban planning Metropolitanization Government Governance Policy instruments 

References

  1. Alexander, L. T. (2011). The Promise and Perils of ‘New Regionalist’ Approaches to Sustainable Communities. Fordham Urban Law Journal, 38(3), 629–674.Google Scholar
  2. Antier, G. (2005). Les stratégies des grandes métropoles. Enjeux, pouvoirs et aménagement. Paris: Armand Colin.Google Scholar
  3. Bache, I., Bartle, I., Flinders, M., & Marsden, G. (2015). Blame Game and Climate Change: Accountability, Multi-Level Governance and Carbon Management. The British Journal of Politics and International Relations, 17(1), 64–88.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-856X.12040.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bache, I. Reardon, L, Bartle, I., Flinders M., & Marsden, G. (2014). Symbolic Meta-Policy: (Not) Tackling Climate Change in the Transport Sector. Political Studies, 1–22.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9248.12123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barber, B. R. (2013). If Mayors Ruled the World. Dysfunctional Nations, Rising Cities. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Black, W. R. (2010). Sustainable Transportation: Problems and Solutions. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  7. Brenner, N. (2002, February). Decoding the Newest ‘Metropolitan Regionalism’ in the USA: A Critical Overview. Cities, 19(1), (3–21).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brown, D. (2012). Comparative Climate Change Policy and Federalism: An Overview. Review of Policy Research, 29(3), 322–333.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-1338.2012.00562.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bulkeley, H., & Betsill, M. (2013). Revisiting the Urban Politics of Climate Change. Environmental Politics, 22(1), 136–154.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09644016.2013.755797.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Calthorpe, P., & Fulton, W. (2001). The Regional City: Planning for the End of Sprawl. Washington, DC: Island Press.Google Scholar
  11. Deal, B., Kim, J. H., & Chakraborty, A. (2009). Growth Management and Sustainable Transport: Do Growth Management Policies Promote Transit Use? Journal of Public Transportation, 12(4), 21–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Frey, K. (2012). Abordagens de governança em áreas metropolitanas da América Latina: avanços e entraves. Urbe, 4(1), 87–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hackworth, J. (2007). The Neoliberal City. Governance, Ideology, and Development in American Urbanism. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Hamilton, D., Hokkane, L., & Wood, C. (2008). Are We Still Stuck in Traffic? Transportation in Metropolitan Areas. In D. Hamilton & P. Atkins (Eds.), Urban and Regional Policies for Metropolitan Livability (pp. 266–295). London: M.E. Sharpe Publishers.Google Scholar
  15. Hood, C. (2007). Intellectual Obsolescence and Intellectual Makeovers: Reflections on the Tools of Government After Two Decades. Governance: An International Journal of Policy Administration and Institutions, 20(1): 127–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hooghe, L., & Marks, G. (2003). Unraveling the Central State, but How? APSR, 97(2), 233–243.Google Scholar
  17. Horak, M., & Young, R. (Eds.). (2012). Sites of Governance: Multilevel Governance and Policy Making in Canada’s Big Cities. Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press.Google Scholar
  18. Howlett, M. (2001). Gouvernance environnementale et gestion de réseaux. In E. A. Parson (Ed.), Gérer l’environnement (pp. 303–341). Montréal: Presses de l’Université de Montréal.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Howlett, M. (2014). From the ‘Old’ to the ‘New’ Policy Design: Design Thinking Beyond Markets and Collaborative Governance. Policy Sciences, 47(3), 187–207.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11077-014-9199-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Howlett, M., Rayner, J., & Jollefson, C. (2009). From Government to Governance in Forest Planning? Lessons from the Case of the British Columbia Great Bear Rainforest Initiative. Forest Policy and Economics, 11, 383–391.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forpol.2009.01.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hull, A. (2008). Policy Integration: What Will It Take to Achieve More Sustainable Transport in Cities? Transport Policy, 15, 94–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Johnston, R. (2004). The Urban Transportation Planning Process. In S. Hanson & G. Giuliano (Ed.), The Geography of Urban Transportation (pp. 115–140). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  23. Jordan, A., Wurzel, R. K. W., & Zito, A. R. (2003). Comparative Conclusions—“New” Environmental Policy Instruments: An Evolution or a Revolution in Environmental Policy? Environmental Politics, 12(1), 201–224.  https://doi.org/10.1080/714000667.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kassim, H., & Le Galès, P. (2010). Exploring Governance in a Multi-Level Polity: A Policy Instruments Approach. West European Politics, 33(1), 1–21.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01402380903354031.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Koch, P. (2013). Overestimating the Shift from Government to Governance: Evidence from Swiss Metropolitan Areas. Governance: An International Journal of Policy, Administration, and Institutions, 26(3), 397–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Krawchenko, T. (2011). Regional Special Purpose Bodies for Transportation and Transit in Canada: Case Studies of Translink and Metrolinx. Canadian Journal of Regional Science, 34(1), 1–18.Google Scholar
  27. Lewis, P., & Sprague M. (1997). Federal Transportation Policy & the Role of Metropolitan Planning Organizations in California. San Francisco: Public Policy Institute of California. http://web.ppic.org/content/pubs/report/R_497PLR.pdf. Accessed 13 February 2014.
  28. Litmann, T. (2013). The New Transportation Planning Paradigm. ITE Journal, 83(6), 20–28.Google Scholar
  29. Maass, A. (Ed.). (1959). Area and Power: A Theory of Local Government. Glencoe, IL: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  30. Margerum, R., Brody, S., Parker, R., McEwen, G., & Moore, T. (2011). Regional Transportation and Land Use Decision Making in Metropolitan Regions: Finding from Four Case Studies. Portland: Policy Consensus Initiative. http://www.policyconsensus.org/publications/reports/trans_landuse.pdf. Accessed 3 March 2014.
  31. Mayntz, R. (2006). From Government to Governance: Political Steering in Modern Societies. In D. Scheer & F. Rubik (Ed.), Governance of Integrated Product Policy: In Search of Sustainable Production and Consumption (pp. 18–25). Sheffield: Greenleaf Publishing.Google Scholar
  32. Merlin, L., & Choay, F. (2000). Dictionnaire de l’urbanisme et de l’aménagement. Paris: PUF.Google Scholar
  33. Miller, D. Y., & Lee, J. H. (2009). Making Sense of Metropolitan Regions: A Dimensional Approach to Regional Governance. Publius: The Journal of Federalism, 41(1), 126–145, Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Mongin, O. (2005). La condition urbaine: La ville à l’heure de la mondialisation. Paris: Seuil.Google Scholar
  35. Nelles, J. (2012, March 2). Cooperation and Capacity? Exploring the Sources and Limits of City Region Governance Partnerships. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2427.2012.01112.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Neuman, M. (2005). The Compact City Fallacy. Journal of Planning Education and Research, 25(11), 11–26.  https://doi.org/10.4337/9781781954225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Norton, A. (1994). International Handbook of Local and Regional Government: A Comparative Analysis of Advanced Democracies. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Paquot, T. (2006). Terre urbaine. Cinq défis pour le devenir urbain de la planète. Paris: La Découverte.Google Scholar
  39. Paquot, T. (2013). Repenser l’urbanisme. Gollion: Infolio.Google Scholar
  40. Pierre, J. (2011). The Politics of Urban Governance. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Pierre, J., & Peters, B. G. (2000). Governance, Politics and the State. London: Macmillan Press.Google Scholar
  42. Porter, D. R. (1992). State and Regional Initiatives for Managing Development: Policy Issues and Practical Concerns. Washington, DC: Urban Land Institute.Google Scholar
  43. Pumain, D., Paquot, T., & Kleinschmager, R. (2006). Dictionnaire La Ville et l’Urbain. Anthropos-Economica, coll. Villes.Google Scholar
  44. Salamon, L. M. (with collaboration of Elliot, O. V.). (2002). The Tools of Government: A Guide to the New Governance. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  45. Santos, G., Behrendt, H., & Teytelboym, A. (2010). Part II: Policy Instruments for Sustainable Road Transport. Research in Transportation Economics, 28(1), 46–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Scott, W. R. (2008). Institutions and Organizations: Ideas and Interests. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  47. Suchman, M. C. (1995). Managing Legitimacy: Strategic and Institutional Approaches. Academy of Management Review, 20(3), 571–610.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Swanstrom, T. (2011). What We Argue About When We Argue About Regionalism. Journal of Urban Affairs, 23(5), 479–496.  https://doi.org/10.1111/0735-2166.00102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Torfing, J., & Triantafillou, P. (2013). What’s in a Name? Grasping New Public Governance as a Political-Administrative System. International Review of Public Administration, 18(2), 9–25.  https://doi.org/10.1080/12294659.2013.10805250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Torfing, J., Peters, B. G., Pierre, J., & Sorensen, E. (2012). Interactive Governance: Advancing the Paradigm. Cary, NC and New-York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Vedung, E. (1998). Policy Instruments: Typologies and Theories. In M. L. Bemelmans-Videc, R. C. Rist, & E. Vedung (Eds.), Carrot, Sticks & Sermons. Policy Instruments & Their Evaluation (pp. 21–58). New Brunswick and London: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  52. Weir, M., Rongerude, J., & Ansell, C. (2009). Collaboration Is Not Enough: Virtuous Cycles of Reform in Transportation Policy. Urban Affairs Review, 44(4), 455–489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Wheeler, S. (2002). The New Regionalism: Key Characteristics of an Emerging Movement. Journal of the American Planning Association, 68(3), 267–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Wilson, W. (1887). The Study of Administration. Political Science Quarterly, 2(2), 197–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Zegras, C. (2017). Metropolitan Governance for Sustainable Mobility. In D. Gomez-Alvarez, R. Rajack, E. Lopez-Moreno, & G. Lanfranchi (Eds.), Steering the Metropolis: Metropolitan Governance for Sustainable Urban Development (pp. 225–238). Inter-American Development Bank.  https://doi.org/10.18235/0000875.

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jean Mercier
    • 1
    Email author
  • Fanny Tremblay-Racicot
    • 2
  • Mario Carrier
    • 3
  • Fábio Duarte
    • 4
  1. 1.Université LavalQuébecCanada
  2. 2.École nationale d’administration publiqueQuébecCanada
  3. 3.Université LavalQuébecCanada
  4. 4.Massachusetts Institute of TechnologyCambridgeUSA

Personalised recommendations