Methanogenesis and Methane Emission in Rice / Paddy Fields

  • N. K. Singh
  • D. B. Patel
  • G. D. Khalekar
Part of the Sustainable Agriculture Reviews book series (SARV, volume 33)


Rice fields are a major source of atmospheric methane (CH4), a greenhouse gas. CH4 emissions from wetland rice fields represents globally 15–20% of the annual anthropogenic CH4 emissions, and about 4% of the global CH4 emissions. Methane emission from rice cultivation may increase from the 1990 level of 97 Tg/year to 145 Tg/year by 2025 due to the increase in acreage and intensification of paddy cultivation. Here we review the role of anaerobic methanogenic bacteria in methane emission. We discuss the factors that influence methane emissions from rice fields, such as water regime, cropping season, soil temperature, fertilizer application, soil physico-chemical properties, crop cultivation, agricultural practices, soil type, soil profile and crop management practices. These practices control soil bacterial communities. Other influencing factors include intercultural operations such as ploughing, puddling and frequent mixing of soil during the paddy field preparation. Methane emission from paddy field follows a seasonal pattern of variation due to influence of climatic factors like temperature, sunlight, and precipitation. Algae, microphytes, macrophytes and anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria significantly reduce CH4 emissions when they grow actively under illuminated condition. Methane emission is limited by alternate flooding-drying; cultivars with few unproductive tillers, small root system, high oxidative ability, and high harvest index; excessive application of organic amendments; application of potassium, biochar, nitrate, sulfate and ferric iron; and urease and nitrification inhibitors.


Archaea Biochar Fertilizers Methanogens Soil properties 



Authors humbly acknowledge the assistance provided by the Vice Chancellor, S.D. Agricultural University (Gujarat, India) for preparation of this manuscript. This article does not attract any conflict of interest among the authors/institutions.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. K. Singh
    • 1
  • D. B. Patel
    • 1
  • G. D. Khalekar
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of MicrobiologyC.P. College of Agriculture, S.D. Agricultural UniversitySardarkrushinagarIndia
  2. 2.Department of Plant Molecular Biology & BiotechnologyC.P. College of Agriculture, S.D. Agricultural UniversitySardarkrushinagarIndia

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