Emojis’ Psychophysics: Measuring Emotions in Technology Enhanced Learning Contexts

  • Roberto Burro
  • Margherita Pasini
  • Daniela RaccanelloEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 804)


Emojis are pictorial representations of human facial expressions which are becoming particularly popular in computer-mediated communication. Within text-based messages, they function as surrogates of real nonverbal elements to convey emotional meanings, but in absence of a verbal label they can result ambiguous. In addition, a quantification of how much positive and/or negative valence is expressed by different emojis is still missing. We asked to 110 adults to evaluate 81 emojis on two scales, relating to positive and negative valence. Through Rasch models, we quantified the amount of positive and negative valence expressed by each emoji, deleting those emojis that were not scalable on the considered dimensions. This study is a preliminary step for the development of a set of scales formed by emojis representing discrete emotions, to be used in a variety of ways in psychological research as well as in technological learning contexts or for product evaluation purposes.


Emotions Emojis Learning Fundamental measurement Rasch models Psychophysical scaling 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roberto Burro
    • 1
  • Margherita Pasini
    • 1
  • Daniela Raccanello
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Human SciencesUniversity of VeronaVeronaItaly

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