Hydrogen Peroxide

  • Günter KampfEmail author


Hydrogen peroxide is mostly bactericidal at 0.5% in 30 min and yeasticidal at 3% in 30 min. A comprehensive fungicidal activity was not seen with 3% hydrogen peroxide in 6 h, similar to a lack of a comprehensive mycobactericidal activity with 3% hydrogen peroxide in 1 h. High MIC values indicating resistance to hydrogen peroxide have so far not been reported. An epidemiological cut-off value to determine acquired resistance has not been proposed yet. Peroxidases and catalases encoded by various genes have been described as specific resistance mechanisms. No cross-tolerance to antibiotics has been reported. Low-level exposure can increase catalyse activity in S. Typhimurium and S. cerevisiae and can induce cross-resistance, e.g. to ethanol in S. cerevisiae. In most bacterial species, there is no or only a small MIC increase after low-level exposure. Hydrogen peroxide increases biofilm formation in A. oleivorans, P. aeruginosa and S. parasanguinis, whereas it is inhibited in Candida spp. In S. epidermidis. the effect depends on the hydrogen peroxide concentration (increase at 1%, inhibition at 0.02–0.25%). Biofilm removal is mostly moderate, e.g. between 55% and 63% for 3% hydrogen peroxide. The potential to cause biofilm fixation is unknown.


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Hygiene and Environmental MedicineUniversity of GreifswaldGreifswaldGermany

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