Povidone Iodine

  • Günter KampfEmail author


Povidone iodine (7.5–10%) is mostly bactericidal in 30 s and yeasticidal in 2 min. A tuberculocidal activity can be found with 1% available iodine in 1 min. Epidemiological cut-off values to determine acquired resistance have not been proposed yet. Elevated MIC values suggestive of povidone iodine tolerance have been reported among few species including L. lactis (≤30,000 mg/l), S. aureus and S. epidermidis (≤14,000 mg/l) as well as Enterobacter spp., E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa and S. marcescens (all ≤ 10,000 mg/l). Specific resistance mechanisms are not known. Contaminated solutions or products based on povidone iodine were partly associated with infections (e.g., peritonitis) or pseudo-outbreaks caused by P. aeruginosa or P. cepacia. Cross-tolerance to other biocidal agents or antibiotics has not been reported yet. Low-level exposure leads to no MIC change in four species and a weak MIC change in P. aeruginosa. A strong MIC change has not been described yet. Low-level exposure inhibited biofilm formation in S. aureus and S. epidermidis and increased the growth rate in P. aeruginosa. Regular povidone iodine exposure had a limited inhibitory effect on biofilm development but an overall good effect on biofilm removal.


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Hygiene and Environmental MedicineUniversity of GreifswaldGreifswaldGermany

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