Advertisement

The Sequence of Service: An Affect Perspective to Service Scheduling

  • Michael J. DixonEmail author
  • Liana Victorino
Chapter
Part of the Service Science: Research and Innovations in the Service Economy book series (SSRI)

Abstract

Research from the behavioral sciences offers many insights into how customers perceive the sequence of service and how these perceptions influence their decision-making and evaluation of the customer experience. This chapter offers a comprehensive literature review of foundational behavioral research that can help inform service scheduling practice. Topics covered include the peak effect and the following sequence effects: peak placement including an early peak versus a delayed peak, trend, spread, end, and duration. An affect perspective is taken to understand how customers respond to these different service scheduling strategies. Two studies that have examined affect-based service scheduling and applied temporal decision theory are also described to illustrate how these behavioral insights can be leveraged when scheduling the customer experience.

Keywords

Sequence effects Peak effect End effect Peak placement Touchpoints 

References

  1. Anderson, J. R. (1995). Learning and memory: An integrated approach (Vol. xvi). Oxford, England: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  2. Anderson, N. H., & Jacobson, A. (1965). Effect of stimulus inconsistency and discounting instructions in personality impression formation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2(4), 531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ariely, D. (1998). Combining experiences over time: The effects of duration, intensity changes and on-line measurements on retrospective pain evaluations. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 11(1), 19–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ariely, D., & Carmon, Z. (2000). Gestalt characteristics of experiences: the defining features of summarized events. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 13(2), 191–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ariely, D., & Carmon, Z. (2003). Summary assessment of experiences: The whole is different from the sum of its parts. Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  6. Ariely, D., & Zauberman, G. (2003). Differential partitioning of extended experiences. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 91(2), 128–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Arnould, E. J., & Price, L. L. (1993). River magic: extraordinary experience and the extended service encounter. Journal of Consumer Research, 20(1), 24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Asch, S. E. (1946). Forming impressions of personality. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 41(3), 258–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Baker, J., Parasuraman, A., Grewal, D., & Voss, G. B. (2002). The Influence of Multiple Store Environment Cues on Perceived Merchandise Value and Patronage Intentions. Journal of Marketing, 66(2), 120–141.  https://doi.org/10.1509/jmkg.66.2.120.18470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Baumgartner, H., Sujan, M., & Padgett, D. (1997). Patterns of Affective Reactions to Advertisements: The Integration of Moment-to-Moment Responses into Overall Judgments. Journal of Marketing Research, 34(2), 219–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Believe in Holiday Magic. (n.d.). Retrieved December 7, 2017, from https://disneyland.disney.go.com/entertainment/disneyland/believe-in-holiday-magic-fireworks/
  12. Bentham, J. (1781). Morals - morals.pdf (2000th ed.). Kitchener, ON: Batoche Books. Retrieved from http://www.efm.bris.ac.uk/het/bentham/morals.pdfGoogle Scholar
  13. Bitner, M. J. (1992). Servicescapes: the impact of physical surroundings on customers and employees. The Journal of Marketing, 56(2), 57–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bitner, M. J., Booms, B. H., & Mohr, L. A. (1994). Critical Service Encounters: The Employee’s Viewpoint. Journal of Marketing, 58(4), 95–106.  https://doi.org/10.2307/1251919CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bitran, G. R., Ferrer, J.-C., & Rocha e Oliveira, P. (2008). OM Forum--Managing Customer Experiences: Perspectives on the Temporal Aspects of Service Encounters. Manufacturing and Service Operations Management, 10(1), 61–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bolton, R. N., Lemon, K. N., & Bramlett, M. D. (2006). The Effect of Service Experiences over Time on a Supplier’s Retention of Business Customers. Management Science, 52(12), 1811–1823.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Brakus, J. J., Schmitt, B. H., & Zarantonello, L. (2009). Brand Experience: What Is It? How Is It Measured? Does It Affect Loyalty? Journal of Marketing, 73(3), 52–68.  https://doi.org/10.1509/jmkg.73.3.52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Brickman, P., Coates, D., & Janoff-Bulman, R. (1978). Lottery winners and accident victims: Is happiness relative? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36(8), 917.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Carmon, Z., & Kahneman, D. (1996). The experienced utility of queuing: real time affect and retrospective evaluations of simulated queues. Working paper, Duke University.Google Scholar
  20. Carstensen, L. L., & Fredrickson, B. L. (1998). Influence of HIV status and age on cognitive representations of others. Health Psychology, 17(6), 494.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Chapman, G. B. (2000). Preferences for improving and declining sequences of health outcomes. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 13(2), 203–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Chase, R. B., & Apte, U. M. (2007). A history of research in service operations: What’s the big idea? Journal of Operations Management, 25(2), 375–386.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jom.2006.11.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Chase, R. B., & Dasu, S. (2001). Want to perfect your company’s service? Use behavioral science. Harvard Business Review, 79(6), 78–84, 147.Google Scholar
  24. Chun, H. E. (2009). Savoring Future Experiences: Antecedents And Effects On Evaluations Of Consumption Experiences. University of Southern California.Google Scholar
  25. Clark, A. E. (1999). Are wages habit-forming? evidence from micro data. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 39(2), 179–200.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-2681(99)00031-1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cohen, J. B., & Areni, C. S. (1991). Affect and consumer behavior. In T. S. Robertson & H. H. Kassarjian (Eds.), Handbook of Consumer Behavior (pp. 188–240). New Jersey: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  27. Cook, L. S., Bowen, D. E., Chase, R., Dasu, S., Stewart, D. M., & Tansik, D. A. (2002). Human issues in service design. Journal of Operations Management, 20(2), 159–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Crano, W. D. (1977). Primacy versus recency in retention of information and opinion change. Journal of Social Psychology, 101(1), 87–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Das Gupta, A., Karmarkar, U. S., & Roels, G. (2016). The Design of Experiential Services with Acclimation and Memory Decay: Optimal Sequence and Duration. Management Science, 62(5), 1278–1296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dasu, S., & Chase, R. (2010). Designing the soft side of customer service. MIT Sloan Management Review, 52(1), 33.Google Scholar
  31. Dasu, S., & Chase, R. (2013). The Customer Service Solution: Managing Emotions, Trust, and Control to Win Your Customer’s Business. McGraw Hill Professional.Google Scholar
  32. Disney Festival of Fantasy Parade. (n.d.). Retrieved February 24, 2017, from https://disneyworld.disney.go.com/entertainment/magic-kingdom/festival-fantasy-parade/
  33. Dixon, M. J., & Thompson, G. M. (2016). Bundling and Scheduling Service Packages with Customer Behavior: Model and Heuristic. Production and Operations Management, 25(1), 36–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Dixon, M. J., & Thompson, G. M. (2017). The Impact of Timing and Bundling Flexibility on Affect-Based Service Package Design. Working Paper, Jon M. Huntsman School of Business Working Paper. Retrieved from http://papers.ssrn.com/abstract=2244529
  35. Dixon, M. J., & Verma, R. (2013). Sequence Effects in Service Bundles: Implications for Service Design and Scheduling. Journal of Operations Management, 31(3), 138–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Dixon, M. J., Victorino, L., Kwortnik, R. J., & Verma, R. (2017). Surprise, Anticipation, and Sequence Effects in the Design of Experiential Services. Production and Operations Management, 26(5), 945–960.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Do, A. M., Rupert, A. V., & Wolford, G. (2008). Evaluations of pleasurable experiences: The peak-end rule. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 15(1), 96–98.  https://doi.org/10.3758/PBR.15.1.96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ebbinghaus, H. (1913). Memory: A Contribution to Experimental Psychology. Teachers College, Columbia University.Google Scholar
  39. Electrical Water Pageant - Magic Kingdom Park. (n.d.). Retrieved February 24, 2017, from https://disneyworld.disney.go.com/entertainment/magic-kingdom/electrical-water-pageant/
  40. Erevelles, S. (1998). The Role of Affect in Marketing. Journal of Business Research, 42(3), 199–215.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0148-2963(97)00118-5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Feigenbaum, E. A., & Simon, H. A. (1962). A theory of the serial position effect. British Journal of Psychology, 53(3), 307–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Fisk, R. P., & Grove, S. J. (2010). The Evolution and Future of Service. In P. P. Maglio, C. A. Kieliszewski, & J. C. Spohrer (Eds.), Handbook of Service Science (pp. 643–663). Springer US.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-1628-0_28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Frederick, S., Loewenstein, G., & O’Donoghue, T. (2002). Time discounting and time preference: A critical review. Journal of Economic Literature, 40(2), 351–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Fredrickson, B. L. (1991). Anticipated endings: An explanation for selective social interaction. Standford University, US.Google Scholar
  45. Fredrickson, B. L. (1995). Socioemotional behavior at the end of college life. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 12(2), 261–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Fredrickson, B. L. (2000). Extracting meaning from past affective experiences: The importance of peaks, ends, and specific emotions. Cognition & Emotion, 14(4), 577–606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Fredrickson, B. L., & Carstensen, L. L. (1990). Choosing social partners: how old age and anticipated endings make people more selective. Psychology and Aging, 5(3), 335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Fredrickson, B. L., & Kahneman, D. (1993). Duration neglect in retrospective evaluations of affective episodes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65(1), 45–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Gilbert, D. T., Pinel, E. C., Wilson, T. D., Blumberg, S. J., & Wheatley, T. P. (1998). Immune neglect: A source of durability bias in affective forecasting. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75(3), 617–638.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.75.3.617CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Grove, S. J., & Fisk, R. P. (1992). The service experience as theater. In J. F. Sherry & B. Sternthal (Eds.), Advances in Consumer Research (Vol. 19, pp. 455–461). Provo, UT. Retrieved from http://www.acrwebsite.org/search/view-conference-proceedings.aspx?Id=7341
  51. Haisley, E., Loewenstein, G., & Simon, H. (2011). It’s Not What You Get but When You Get It: The Effect of Gift Sequence on Deposit Balances and Customer Sentiment in a Commercial Bank. Journal of Marketing Research, 48(1), 103–115.  https://doi.org/10.1509/jmkr.48.1.103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Helson, H. (1964). Adaptation-level theory: an experimental and systematic approach to behavior. Retrieved from http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/1964-35039-000
  53. Heskett, J. L., Sasser, W. E., & Hart, C. W. . (1990). Service breakthroughs: Changing the rules of the game. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  54. Hirsch, P. M., & Levin, D. Z. (1999). Umbrella Advocates Versus Validity Police: A Life-Cycle Model. Organization Science, 10(2), 199–212.  https://doi.org/10.1287/orsc.10.2.199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Holbrook, M. B., & Hirschman, E. C. (1982). The experiential aspects of consumption: Consumer fantasies, feelings, and fun. Journal of Consumer Research, 9(2), 132–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hoyer, W. D. (1984). An Examination of Consumer Decision Making for a Common Repeat Purchase Product. Journal of Consumer Research, 11(3), 822–829.  https://doi.org/10.1086/209017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Hsee, C. K., & Abelson, R. P. (1991). Velocity relation: Satisfaction as a function of the first derivative of outcome over time. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60(3), 341–347.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.60.3.341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Hsee, C. K., Abelson, R. P., & Salovey, P. (1991). The Relative Weighting of Position and Velocity in Satisfaction. Psychological Science, 2(4), 263–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Hsee, C. K., Salovey, P., & Abelson, R. P. (1994). The quasi-acceleration relation: Satisfaction as a function of the change of velocity of outcome over time. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 30, 96–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Hui, M. K., & Bateson, J. E. G. (1991). Perceived Control and the Effects of Crowding and Consumer Choice on the Service Experience. Journal of Consumer Research, 18(2), 174–184.  https://doi.org/10.1086/209250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Hui, S. K., Meyvis, T., & Assael, H. (2014). Analyzing moment-to-moment data using a bayesian functional linear model: application to TV show pilot testing. Marketing Science, 33(2), 222–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Johnston, R. (1995). The Zone of Tolerance: Exploring the relationship between service transactions and satisfaction with the overall service. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 6(2), 46–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Jose, P. E., Lim, B. T., & Bryant, F. B. (2012). Does savoring increase happiness? A daily diary study. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 7(3), 176–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Kahneman, D. (2000). Evaluation by moments: Past and future. In D. Kahneman & A. Tversky (Eds.), Choices, values, and frames (pp. 693–708). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved from http://www.vwl.tuwien.ac.at/hanappi/TEI/momentsfull.pdfGoogle Scholar
  65. Kahneman, D., Fredrickson, B. L., Schreiber, C. A., & Redelmeier, D. A. (1993). When more pain is preferred to less: Adding a better end. Psychological Science, 4(6), 401–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Kahneman, D., & Miller, D. T. (1986). Norm theory: Comparing reality to its alternatives. Psychological Review, 93(2), 136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Kahneman, D., & Tversky, A. (1979). Prospect Theory: An Analysis of Decision under Risk. Econometrica, 47(2), 263–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Kahneman, D., Wakker, P. P., & Sarin, R. (1997). Back to Bentham? Explorations of Experienced Utility. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 112(2), 375–405.  https://doi.org/10.1162/003355397555235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Kemp, S., Burt, C. D. B., & Furneaux, L. (2008). A test of the peak-end rule with extended autobiographical events. Memory & Cognition, 36(1), 132–138.  https://doi.org/10.3758/MC.36.1.132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Kocher, M. G., Krawczyk, M., & van Winden, F. (2014). ‘Let me dream on!’ Anticipatory emotions and preference for timing in lotteries. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 98, 29–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Koopmans, T. C. (1960). Stationary Ordinal Utility and Impatience. Econometrica, 28(2), 287–309.  https://doi.org/10.2307/1907722CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Kranzbühler, A.-M., Kleijnen, M. H., Morgan, R. E., & Teerling, M. (2017). The Multilevel Nature of Customer Experience Research: An Integrative Review and Research Agenda. International Journal of Management Reviews.Google Scholar
  73. Kwortnik, R. J., & Ross, W. T. (2007). The role of positive emotions in experiential decisions. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 24(4), 324–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Langer, T., Sarin, R., & Weber, M. (2005). The retrospective evaluation of payment sequences: duration neglect and peak-and-end effects. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 58(1), 157–175.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jebo.2004.01.001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Lemon, K. N., & Verhoef, P. C. (2016). Understanding customer experience throughout the customer journey. American Marketing Association.Google Scholar
  76. Let the Magic Begin. (n.d.). Retrieved February 24, 2017, from https://disneyworld.disney.go.com/entertainment/magic-kingdom/magic-kingdom-welcome/
  77. Loewenstein, G. (1987). Anticipation and the Valuation of Delayed Consumption. The Economic Journal, 97(387), 666–684.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Loewenstein, G., & Elster, J. (1992). Utility from memory and anticipation. In Choice Over Time (pp. 213–234). New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation. Retrieved from http://www.andrew.cmu.edu/user/gl20/GeorgeLoewenstein/Papers_files/pdf/UtilityMemoryAnticip.pdfGoogle Scholar
  79. Loewenstein, G., & Prelec, D. (1993). Preferences for Sequences of Outcomes. Psychological Review, 100(1), 91–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Loewenstein, G., & Schkade, D. (1999). Wouldn’t it be nice? Predicting future feelings. Well-Being: The Foundations of Hedonic Psychology, 85–105.Google Scholar
  81. Loewenstein, G., & Sicherman, N. (1991). Do Workers Prefer Increasing Wage Profiles? Journal of Labor Economics, 9(1), 67–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. McLellan, H. (2000). Experience design. Cyberpsychology and Behavior, 3(1), 59–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Miller, N., & Campbell, D. T. (1959). Recency and primacy in persuasion as a function of the timing of speeches and measurements. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 59(1), 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Miron-Shatz, T. (2009). Evaluating multiepisode events: Boundary conditions for the peak-end rule. Emotion, 9(2), 206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Move It! Shake It! Dance & Play It! Street Party. (n.d.). Retrieved February 24, 2017, from https://disneyworld.disney.go.com/entertainment/magic-kingdom/move-it-shake-it-dance-play-it/
  86. Moya, L. (2006). Is an Improving Grade Sequence Preferable to a Better Grade? Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/266877856_Is_an_Improving_Grade_Sequence_Preferable_to_a_Better_Grade
  87. Murdock Jr, B. B. (1962). The serial position effect of free recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 64(5), 482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Nowlis, S. M., Mandel, N., & McCabe, D. B. (2004). The effect of a delay between choice and consumption on consumption enjoyment. Journal of Consumer Research, 31(3), 502–510.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. O’Brien, E., & Ellsworth, P. C. (2012). Saving the Last for Best A Positivity Bias for End Experiences. Psychological Science, 0956797611427408.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797611427408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Ofir, C., & Simonson, I. (2007). The Effect of Stating Expectations on Customer Satisfaction and Shopping Experience. Journal of Marketing Research, 44(1), 164–174.  https://doi.org/10.1509/jmkr.44.1.164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Oliver, R. L. (1980). A Cognitive Model of the Antecedents and Consequences of Satisfaction Decisions. Journal of Marketing Research, 17(4), 460–469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Pine, B. J., & Gilmore, J. H. (1998). Welcome to the experience economy. Harvard Business Review, 76(4), 97–105.Google Scholar
  93. Premier Experiences. (n.d.). Retrieved February 24, 2017, from http://seaworldparks.com/en/seaworld-sandiego/Attractions/Exclusive-Park-Experiences/
  94. Read, D., Loewenstein, G., Rabin, M., Keren, G., & Laibson, D. (1999). Choice Bracketing. In B. Fischhoff & C. F. Manski (Eds.), Elicitation of Preferences (pp. 171–202). Springer Netherlands.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-1406-8_7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Rode, E., Rozin, P., & Durlach, P. (2007). Experienced and remembered pleasure for meals: Duration neglect but minimal peak, end (recency) or primacy effects. Appetite, 49(1), 18–29.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2006.09.006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Ross, W. T., & Simonson, I. (1991). Evaluations of pairs of experiences: A preference for happy endings. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 4(4), 273–282.  https://doi.org/10.1002/bdm.3960040405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Samuelson, P. A. (1937). A Note on Measurement of Utility. The Review of Economic Studies, 4(2), 155–161.  https://doi.org/10.2307/2967612CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Schmitt, B. (1999). Experiential marketing. Journal of Marketing Management, 15(1–3), 53–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Schreiber, C. A., & Kahneman, D. (2000). Determinants of the remembered utility of aversive sounds. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 129(1), 27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Schwarz, N., & Clore, G. L. (1983). Mood, misattribution, and judgments of well-being: Informative and directive functions of affective states. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45(3), 513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Shiv, B., & Huber, J. (2000). The impact of anticipating satisfaction on consumer choice. Journal of Consumer Research, 27(2), 202–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Sivakumar, K., Li, M., & Dong, B. (2014). Service quality: The impact of frequency, timing, proximity, and sequence of failures and delights. American Marketing Association.Google Scholar
  103. Slovic, P., Fischhoff, B., & Lichtenstein, S. (1986). The psychometric study of risk perception. In Risk evaluation and management (pp. 3–24). Springer.Google Scholar
  104. Spohrer, J. C., & Maglio, P. P. (2010). Toward a science of service systems. In Handbook of service science (pp. 157–194). Springer.Google Scholar
  105. Strack, F., & Mussweiler, T. (1997). Explaining the enigmatic anchoring effect: Mechanisms of selective accessibility. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73(3), 437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Stuart, F. I., & Tax, S. (2004). Toward an integrative approach to designing service experiences: Lessons learned from the theatre. Journal of Operations Management, 22(6), 609–627.Google Scholar
  107. Thaler, R. (1985). Mental Accounting and Consumer Choice. Marketing Science, 4(3), 199–214.  https://doi.org/10.1287/mksc.4.3.199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Thaler, R. H. (1981). Some empirical evidence on time inconsistency. Review of Economic Studies, 23, 165–180.Google Scholar
  109. Thaler, R. H., & Johnson, E. J. (1990). Gambling with the House Money and Trying to Break Even: The Effects of Prior Outcomes on Risky Choice. Management Science, 36(6), 643–660.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Tversky, A., & Griffin, D. (1991). On the dynamics of hedonic experience: endowment and contrast in judgements of well-being. In F. Strack, M. Argyle, & N. Schwarz (Eds.), Subjective Well-Being: An interdisciplinary Perspective (1st ed.). Oxford, UK: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  111. Tversky, A., & Kahneman, D. (1985). The framing of decisions and the psychology of choice. In Environmental Impact assessment, technology assessment, and risk analysis (pp. 107–129). Springer.Google Scholar
  112. Tversky, A., & Kahneman, D. (1986). Rational choice and the framing of decisions. Journal of Business, S251–S278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Varey, C., & Kahneman, D. (1992). Experiences extended across time: Evaluation of moments and episodes. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 5(3), 169–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Vargo, S. L., & Lusch, R. F. (2004). Evolving to a new dominant logic for marketing. Journal of Marketing, 68(1), 1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Verhoef, P. C., Antonides, G., & de Hoog, A. N. (2004). Service encounters as a sequence of events: The importance of peak experiences. Journal of Service Research, 7(1), 53–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Verhoef, P. C., Lemon, K. N., Parasuraman, A., Roggeveen, A., Tsiros, M., & Schlesinger, L. A. (2009). Customer experience creation: Determinants, dynamics and management strategies. Journal of Retailing, 85(1), 31–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Victorino, L., Verma, R., & Wardell, D. G. (2013). Script usage in standardized and customized service encounters: implications for perceived service quality. Production and Operations Management, 22(3), 518–534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Voss, C., Roth, A. V., & Chase, R. B. (2008). Experience, service operations strategy, and services as destinations: foundations and exploratory investigation. Production and Operations Management, 17(3), 247–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Wishes nighttime spectacular. (n.d.). Retrieved February 24, 2017, from https://disneyworld.disney.go.com/entertainment/magic-kingdom/wishes-nighttime-spectacular/
  120. Zomerdijk, L. G., & Voss, C. A. (2010). Service Design for Experience-Centric Services. Journal of Service Research, 13(1), 67–82.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1094670509351960CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Jon M Huntsman School of BusinessUtah State UniversityLoganUSA
  2. 2.Gustavson School of BusinessUniversity of VictoriaVictoriaCanada

Personalised recommendations