Embedding Humans into Service Systems Analysis: The Evolution of Mathematical Thinking About Services

  • Alexandra Medina-BorjaEmail author
Part of the Service Science: Research and Innovations in the Service Economy book series (SSRI)


Current technology-driven innovations in service systems tend to replace human workers with machines, rather than engineering a partnership between the two. Engineering this cooperation is not an easy task, and requires cyber-physical systems that seamlessly adapt and respond to unexpected human interactions. This chapter provides an overview of how mathematical modeling of service systems with human-machine cooperation is evolving. In addition to the modeling challenges, a historical view of modeling humans in service systems is presented, including current promising work and tools, such as deep learning, and Markov process approaches to model human behavior and interaction. The chapter also explores using other mathematical paradigms and creating a new mathematical language to model humans.


Human-machine partnership Mathematical modeling Cyber-physical-human service systems Service system design Convergence 



Disclaimer: Dr. Alexandra Medina-Borja was working at NSF while working on this chapter. Any opinion, finding, conclusions, and recommendations expressed in this paper are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Foundation.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Industrial EngineeringUniversity of Puerto Rico-MayaguezMayaguezUSA

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