Advertisement

Using Employees’ Collective Intelligence for Service Innovation: Theory and Instruments

  • Niels FeldmannEmail author
  • Hansjörg Fromm
  • Gerhard Satzger
  • Ronny Schüritz
Chapter
Part of the Service Science: Research and Innovations in the Service Economy book series (SSRI)

Abstract

In this chapter, we reflect on the potential and instruments for involving employees in service innovation processes. Based on a discussion of value co-creation scenarios in the context of service innovation, we conjecture that frontline employees of service providers can be powerful proxies for their customers. Thus, they might be a particularly valuable group to involve in service innovation endeavors. The quality of these proxies may increase with the depth of insights frontline employees can gain from their customers. Moreover, as the literature suggests, these employees can also cater for the strategic and cultural fit of service innovations to their organizations, to avoid a reported drawback of directly involving customers in the service innovation process. Hence, we first suggest leveraging the potential of large numbers of these employees through collective intelligence instruments and derive design recommendations for such approaches. In the second part of the chapter, we then introduce and compare four types of collective intelligence instruments that are currently used by companies to involve employees. We close by suggesting avenues for further research in this domain.

Keywords

Collective intelligence Wisdom of the crowd Service innovation Professional service firms Crowdfunding Enterprise crowdfunding Idea markets Participatory budgeting Innovation communities 

References

  1. Agrawal, A., Catalini, C., & Goldfarb, A. (2014). Some Simple Economics of Crowdfunding. Innovation Policy and the Economy 14: 63–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agrawal, A., Catalini, C., & Goldfarb, A. (2015). Crowdfunding: Geography, social networks, and the timing of investment decisions. Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, 24(2): 253–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahlers, G. K., Cumming, D., Günther, C., & Schweizer, D. (2015). Signaling in Equity Crowdfunding. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 39(4): 955–980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alam, I., & Perry, C. (2002). A customer-oriented new service development process. Journal of Services Marketing, 16(6): 515–534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Arrow, K. J., Forsythe, R., Gorham, M., Hahn, R., Hanson, R., Ledyard, J. O., Levmore, S., Litan, R., Milgrom, P., Nelson, F. D., Neumann, G. R., Ottaviani, M., Schelling, T. C., Shiller, R. J., Smith, V. L., Snowberg, E., Sunstein, C. R., Tetlock, P. C., Tetlock, P. E., Varian, H. R., Wolfers, J., Zitzewitz, E. (2008). The promise of prediction markets. Science, 320(5878): 877–878.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bayus, B. L. (2013). Crowdsourcing New Product Ideas over Time: An Analysis of the Dell IdeaStorm Community. Management Science, 59(1): 226–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. BearingPoint. (2016). BearingPoint stärkt die Bereiche Solutions und Ventures durch die Berufung von Jürgen Lux und Kiumars Hamidian in das globale Management Committee. Press Release. http://www.wallstreet-online.de/nachricht/8343139-bearingpoint-staerkt-bereiche-solutions-ventures-berufung-juergen-lux-kiumars-hamidian-globale-management-committee. Accessed 19 Feb 2017.
  8. Belleflamme, P., Lambert, T., & Schwienbacher, A. (2014). Crowdfunding: Tapping the right crowd. Journal of Business Venturing, 29(5): 585–609.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bennouri, M., Gimpel, H., & Robert, J. (2011). Measuring the impact of information aggregation mechanisms: An experimental investigation. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 78(3): 302–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bessant, J., & Caffyn, S. (1997). High-involvement innovation through continuous improvement. International Journal of Technology Management, 14(1): 7–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bjelland, O. M., & Wood, R. C. (2008). An Inside View of IBM’s ‘Innovation Jam’. MIT Sloan Management Review, 50(1): 32–40.Google Scholar
  12. Bonabeau, E. (2009). Decisions 2.0: The Power of Collective Intelligence. MIT Sloan Management Review, 50(2): 45–52.Google Scholar
  13. Bradford, C. S. (2012). Crowdfunding and the federal securities law. Columbia Business Law Review, 2012 (1): 1–150.Google Scholar
  14. Brand, A. (1998). Knowledge Management and Innovation at 3M. Journal of Knowledge Management, 2(1): 17–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Breidbach, C. F., Brodie, R., & Hollebeek, L. (2014). Beyond virtuality: From engagement platforms to engagement ecosystems. Managing Service Quality, 24(6): 592–611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Breidbach, C. F., Smith, P., & Callagher, L. J. (2013). Advancing Innovation in Professional Service Firms: Insights from the Service-Dominant Logic. Service Science, 5(3): 263–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Brodie, R. J., Hollebeek, L. D., Jurić, B., & Ilić, A. (2011). Customer engagement: Conceptual domain, fundamental propositions, and implications for research. Journal of Service Research, 14(3): 252–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Burtch, G., Di Benedetto, C., & Mudambi, S. (2014). Leveraging information systems for enhanced product innovation. In: F. J. Martinez-Lopez (Ed.), Handbook of strategic e-business management. Springer, pp 211–216.Google Scholar
  19. Cabannes, Y. (2004). Participatory budgeting: a significant contribution to participatory democracy. Environment and Urbanization, 16(1): 27–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chen, K.-Y., & Plott, C. R. (2002). Information aggregation mechanisms: Concept, design and implementation for a sales forecasting problem. Working Paper 1131, California Institute of Technology, Division of the Humanities and Social Sciences. https://authors.library.caltech.edu/44358/1/wp1131.pdf. Accessed 15 Sept 2018Google Scholar
  21. Chesbrough, H. W. (2006). Open innovation: The new imperative for creating and profiting from technology. Harvard Business Press.Google Scholar
  22. Chesbrough, H. W. (2010). Open services innovation: Rethinking your business to grow and compete in a new era. John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  23. Chesbrough, H. W. (2011). Bringing open innovation to services. MIT Sloan Management Review, 52(2): 85–90.Google Scholar
  24. Chesbrough, H. W., & Davies, A. (2010). Advancing services innovation: Five key concepts. In: P. P. Maglio, C. A. Kieliszewski & J. C. Spohrer (Eds.), Handbook of service science. Springer, pp 579–601.Google Scholar
  25. Christensen, C. M., Wang, D., & Bever, D. V. (2013). Consulting on the Cusp of Disruption. Havard Business Review, 91(10): 106–114.Google Scholar
  26. Coombs, R., & Miles, I. (2000). Innovation, measurement and services: the new problematique. In: J. S. Metcalfe & I. Miles (Eds.), Innovation systems in the service economy: Measurement and case study analysis. Springer, pp 85–103.Google Scholar
  27. Cooper, R. G., & Edgett, S. (2008). Ideation for product innovation: What are the best methods? Reference Paper 29, Product Development Institute Inc. http://www.stage-gate.net/downloads/working_papers/wp_29.pdf. Accessed 05 Feb 2017.
  28. Cooper, R. G., & Kleinschmidt, E. J. (1986). An investigation into the new product process: Steps, deficiencies, and impact. The Journal of Product Innovation Management, 3(2): 71–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Davies, R. (2014). Civic crowdfunding: participatory communities, entrepreneurs and the political economy of place (master’s thesis). Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA.Google Scholar
  30. Demirkan, H., Bess, C., Spohrer, J., Rayes, A., Allen, D., & Moghaddam, Y. (2015). Innovations with Smart Service Systems: Analytics, Big Data, Cognitive Assistance, and the Internet of Everything. Communications of the Association for Information Systems. 37: 35.Google Scholar
  31. den Hertog, P., van der Aa, W., & de Jong, M. (2010). Capabilities for managing service innovation: towards a conceptual framework. Journal of Service Management, 21(4): 490–514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. de Sousa Santos, B. (1998). Participatory Budgeting in Porto Alegre: Toward a Redistributive Democracy. Politics & Society, 26(4): 461–510.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. de Vries, E. J. (2006). Innovation in services in networks of organizations and in the distribution of services. Research Policy, 35(7): 1037–1051.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Drejer, I. (2004). Identifying innovation in surveys of services: A Schumpeterian perspective. Research Policy, 33(3): 551–562.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Edvardsson, B., Gustafsson, A., Kristensson, P., & Witell, L. (2010). Service innovation and customer co-development. In: P. P. Maglio, C. A. Kieliszewski & J. C. Spohrer (Eds.), Handbook of service science. Springer, pp 561–577.Google Scholar
  36. Edvardsson, B., & Olsson, J. (1996). Key Concepts for New Service Development. The Service Industries Journal, 16(2): 140–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Feldmann, N. (2018). Enterprise crowdfunding: Related theories and empirical investigation of characteristics and dynamics. Dissertation. Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, Germany.Google Scholar
  38. Feldmann, N., & Gimpel, H. (2016). Financing projects through enterprise crowdfunding: Understanding the impact of proposal characteristics on funding success. In Proceedings of the twenty-fourth european conference on information systems, ECIS. Istanbul, Turkey.Google Scholar
  39. Feldmann, N., Gimpel, H., Kohler, M., & Weinhardt, C. (2013). Using crowd funding for idea assessment inside organizations: Lessons learned from a market engineering perspective. In Proceedings of the third international conference on cloud and green computing, CGC. Karlsruhe, Germany.Google Scholar
  40. Feldmann, N., Gimpel, H., Muller, M., & Geyer, W. (2014). Idea assessment via enterprise crowdfunding: An empirical analysis of decision-making styles. In Proceedings of the twenty second european conference on information systems, ECIS. Tel Aviv, Israel.Google Scholar
  41. Feldmann, N., & Kohler, M. (2015). Service innovation capabilities for idea assessment: An appraisal of established and novel approaches. In: R. Agarwal, W. Selen, G. Roos, & R. Green (Eds.), The handbook of service innovation. Springer, pp 145–167.Google Scholar
  42. Fichter, K. (2009). Innovation communities: the role of networks of promotors in Open Innovation. R&D Management, 39 (4): 357–371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Füller, J., Bartl, M., Ernst, H., & Mühlbacher, H. (2004). Community based innovation: a method to utilize the innovative potential of online communities. In Proceedings of the 37th hawaii international conference on system sciences, HICSS. Hawaii, USA.Google Scholar
  44. Gadrey, J., & Gallouj, F. (1998). The Provider-Customer Interface in Business and Professional Services. The Service Industries Journal, 18(2): 01–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Gallouj, F., & Weinstein, O. (1997). Innovation in services. Research Policy, 26: 537– 556.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Galton, F. (1907). Vox populi. Nature, 75, 450–451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Geiger, D., Fielt, E., Rosemann, M., & Schader, M. (2012). Crowdsourcing Information Systems –Definition, Typology, and Design. In Proceedings of the 33rd international conference on information systems, ICIS. Orlando, FL, USA.Google Scholar
  48. Gerber, E. M., Hui, J. S., & Kuo, P.-Y. (2012). Crowdfunding: Why people are motivated to post and fund projects on crowdfunding platforms. Workshop position paper at the 15th ACM conference on computer supported cooperative work and social computing, CSCW. Seattle, WA, USA.Google Scholar
  49. Gillen, B. J., Plott, C. R., & Shum, M. (2012). Information Aggregation Mechanisms in the Field: Sales Forecasting Inside Intel. Working paper. http://www8.gsb.columbia.edu/rtfiles/ finance/MattShum-2012.pdf. Accessed 03 Feb 2017.
  50. Graefe, A., & Armstrong, J. S. (2011). Comparing face-to-face meetings, nominal groups, Delphi and prediction markets on an estimation task. International Journal of Forecasting, 27(1): 183–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Greeley, B. (2012). Making sense of the games politicians play. https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2012-08-30/making-sense-of-the-games-politicians-play. Accessed 12 Feb 2017.
  52. Haas, P., Blohm, I., & Leimeister, J. M. (2014). An Empirical Taxonomy of Crowdfunding Intermediaries. In Proceedings of the thirty fifth international conference on information systems, ICIS. Auckland, New Zealand.Google Scholar
  53. Harms, M. (2007). What drives motivation to participate financially in a crowdfunding community? Master’s thesis. vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  54. Helander, M., Lawrence, R., Liu, Y., Perlich, C., Reddy, C., & Rosset, S. (2007). Looking for great ideas: Analyzing the innovation jam. In: Proceedings of the 9th WebKDD and 1st SNA-KDD 2007 workshop on web mining and social network analysis. San Jose, CA, USA.Google Scholar
  55. Hemer, J. (2011). A snapshot on crowdfunding. Working papers firms and region, No. R2/2011. Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISI. http://hdl.handle.net/10419/52302 Accessed 15 Sept 2018.Google Scholar
  56. Hippel, E. v. (1978). Successful Industrial Products from Customer Ideas. Journal of Marketing, 42(1): 39–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Hippel, E. v. (1988). The sources of innovation. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  58. Hirst, G., Knippenberg, D. van, & Zhou, J. (2009). A cross-level perspective on employee creativity: Goal orientation, team learning behavior, and individual creativity. The Academy of Management Journal, 52(2): 280–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Hoever, I. J., van Knippenberg, D., van Ginkel, W. P., & Barkema, H. G. (2012). Fostering team creativity: Perspective taking as key to unlocking diversity’s potential. Journal of Applied Psychology, 97(5): 982–996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Hohmann, L. (2007). Innovation games: creating breakthrough products through collaborative play. Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  61. Hohmann, L. (2014). How to prioritize your project portfolio using conteneo collaboration games: A playbook in the epic wins series (Kindle Edition ed.). Conteneo, Inc.Google Scholar
  62. Hohmann, L. (2016, December 19). Design tip: Variations on participatory budgeting. Conteneo Blog. https://info.conteneo.co/variations-on-participatory-budgeting. Accessed 12 Feb 2017.
  63. Howe, B. J. (2006a). The rise of crowdsourcing. Wired Magazine. http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/14.06/crowds_pr.html. Accessed 09 April 2015Google Scholar
  64. Howe, J. (2006b). Crowdsourcing: A definition. http://crowdsourcing.typepad.com/cs/2006/06/crowdsourcing_a.html. Accessed 11 Jan 2017.
  65. Hrastinski, S., Kviselius, N. Z., Ozan, H., & Edenius, M. (2010). A review of technologies for open innovation: Characteristics and future trends. In Proceedings of the 43rd hawaii international conference on system sciences, HICSS.Google Scholar
  66. Hui, J. S., Greenberg, M. D., & Gerber, E. M. (2014). Understanding the role of community in crowdfunding work. In Proceedings of the 17th acm conference on computer supported cooperative work and social computing, CSCW. Baltimore, MD, USA.Google Scholar
  67. IBM. (2006). Expanding the innovation horizon: The global ceo study 2006 (Tech. Rep.). IBM Global Services. http://www -935.ibm.com/services/us/gbs/bus/pdf/ceostudy.pdf. Accessed 13 Jan 2017.
  68. IBM. (2017). IBM Innovation Jam. https:// www.collaborationjam.com. Accessed 08 Feb 2017.
  69. Jenkins, H. (2006). Collective intelligence vs. the wisdom of crowds. Confessions of an aca-fan. The Official Weblog of Henry Jenkins. http://henryjenkins.org/2006/11/collective _intelligence_vs_the.html. Accessed 03 Feb 2017.
  70. Kamp, G., & Koen, P. (2009). Improving the idea screening process within organizations using prediction markets: A theoretical perspective. The Journal of Prediction Markets, 3(2): 39–64.Google Scholar
  71. Kappel, T. (2009). Ex ante crowdfunding and the recording industry: A model for the U.S. Loyola of Los Angeles Entertainment Law Review, 29(3): 375–385.Google Scholar
  72. Kuppuswamy, V., & Bayus, B. L. (2015). Crowdfunding creative ideas: the dynamics of project backers in Kickstarter. UNC Kenan-Flagler Research Paper. https://ssrn.com/abstract=2234765. Accessed 06 Nov 2016.
  73. Lavoie, J. (2009). The innovation engine at Rite-Solutions: Lessons from the CEO. The Journal of Prediction Markets, 3(1): 1–11.Google Scholar
  74. Leimeister, J. M. (2010). Collective Intelligence. Business & Information Systems Engineering, 2(4): 245–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Leiponen, A. (2006). Managing knowledge for innovation: The case of business- to-business services. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 23(3): 238–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Levy, P. (1999). Collective intelligence: Mankind’s emerging world in cyberspace. Basic Books.Google Scholar
  77. Lichtenthaler, U. (2011). Open Innovation: Past Research, Current Debates, and Future Directions. The Academy of Management Perspectives, 25(1): 75–93.Google Scholar
  78. Maglio, P. P., & Spohrer, J. (2008). Fundamentals of service science. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 36(1): 18–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Maglio, P. P., & Spohrer, J. (2013). A service science perspective on business model innovation. Industrial Marketing Management, 42 (5): 665–670.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Malone, T. W., Laubacher, R., & Dellarocas, C. (2009). Harnessing crowds: Mapping the genome of collective intelligence. MIT Sloan School Working Paper 4732-09. http://ssrn.com/abstract=1381502 Accessed 10 Jan 2017Google Scholar
  81. Malone, T. W., Laubacher, R., & Dellarocas, C. (2010). The collective intelligence genome. MIT Sloan Management Review, 51(3): 21–31.Google Scholar
  82. Marom, D., Robb, A., & Sade, O. (2016). Gender dynamics in crowdfunding (Kickstarter): Evidence on entrepreneurs, investors, deals, and taste-based discrimination. Working paper. SSRN Electronic Journal. https://ssrn.com/abstract=2442954. Accessed 12 Nov 2016.
  83. McAfee, A. P. (2006). Enterprise 2.0: The dawn of emergent collaboration. MIT Sloan Management Review, 47(3): 21–28.Google Scholar
  84. Melton, H. L., & Hartline, M. D. (2010). Customer and frontline employee influence on new service development performance. Journal of Service Research, 13(4): 411–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Mitra, T., & Gilbert, E. (2014). The language that gets people to give: Phrases that predict success on Kickstarter. In Proceedings of the 17th acm conference on computer supported cooperative work and social computing, CSCW. Baltimore, MD, USA.Google Scholar
  86. Mollick, E. (2014). The dynamics of crowdfunding: An exploratory study. Journal of Business Venturing, 29(1): 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Muller, M., Geyer, W., Soule, T., Daniels, S., & Cheng, L.-T. (2013). Crowdfunding inside the enterprise: Employee-initiatives for innovation and collaboration. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on human factors in computing systems. Paris, France.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Othman, A., & Sandholm, T. (2010). Decision rules and decision markets. In: Proceedings of the 9th international conference on autonomous agents and multiagent systems. Toronto, Canada.Google Scholar
  89. Ottaviani, M. (2009). The design of idea markets: An economist’s perspective. The Journal of Prediction Markets, 3(1): 41–44.Google Scholar
  90. Palmisano, S. (2004). Leading change when business is good. Interview by Paul Hemp and Thomas A. Stewart. Harvard Business Review, 82(12): 60–70.Google Scholar
  91. Patricio, L., Gustafsson, A., & Fisk, R. (2018). Upframing service design and innovation for research impact. Journal of Service Research, 21(1): 3–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Pieterse, A. N., Van Knippenberg, D., & Van Dierendonck, D. (2013). Cultural diversity and team performance: The role of team member goal orientation. Academy of Management Journal, 56(3): 782–804.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Piller, F. T., & Walcher, D. (2006). Toolkits for idea competitions: A novel method to integrate users in new product development. R&D Management, 36(3): 307–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Plott, C. R., Wit, J., & Yang, W. C. (2003). Parimutuel betting markets as information aggregation devices: Experimental results. Economic Theory, 22 (2): 311–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Prahalad, C. K., & Ramaswamy, V. (2004). Co-creation experiences: The next practice in value creation. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 18(3): 5–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Ready, D. A. (2015, November). Getting employees excited about a new direction. https://hbr.org/2015/11/getting-employees-excited-about-a-new-direction. Accessed 08 Feb 2017.
  97. Satzger, G., & Neus, A. (2010). Principles of collaborative innovation: Implementation of open and peer-to-peer innovation approaches. In: A. Gerybadze et al. (eds.), Innovation and International Corporate Growth. Springer, pp 219–237.Google Scholar
  98. Sawhney, M., Verona, G., & Prandelli, E. (2005). Collaborating to create: The internet as a platform for customer engagement in product innovation. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 19(4): 4–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Scheuing, E. E., & Johnson, E. M. (1989). A Proposed Model for New Service Development. Journal of Services Marketing, 3 (2): 25–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Schneider, B., & Bowen, D. E. (1995). Winning the service game. Harvard Business School Press.Google Scholar
  101. Schneider, B., & Bowen, D. E. (2010). Winning the service game: Revisiting the rules by which people co-create value. In: P. P. Maglio, C. A. Kieliszewski & J. C. Spohrer (Eds.), Handbook of service science. Springer, pp 31–59.Google Scholar
  102. Schwienbacher, A., & Larralde, B. (2010, September). Crowdfunding of small entrepreneurial ventures. In: D. Cumming (Ed.), Handbook of entrepreneurial finance, Forthcoming. SSRN, Final Version, https://ssrn.com/abstract=1699183. Accessed 15 Nov 2016.
  103. Simmons, J. P., Nelson, L. D., Galak, J., & Frederick, S. (2011). Intuitive biases in choice versus estimation: Implications for the wisdom of crowds. Journal of Consumer Research, 38: 1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Simula, H., & Vuori, M. (2012). Benefits and barriers of crowdsourcing in B2B firms: Generating ideas with internal and external crowds. International Journal of Innovation Management, 16(6): 1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Sintomer, Y., Herzberg, C., & Röcke, A. (2008). Participatory budgeting in Europe: Potentials and challenges. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 32(1): 164–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Smith, V. L. (1982). Microeconomic systems as an experimental science. The American Economic Review, 72(5): 923–955.Google Scholar
  107. Soukhoroukova, A., Spann, M., & Skiera, B. (2012). Sourcing, filtering, and evaluating new product ideas: An empirical exploration of the performance of idea markets. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 29(1): 100–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Spears, B., Lacomb, C., Interrante, J., Barnett, J., & Senturk-Dogonaksoy, D. (2009). Examining trader behaviour in idea markets: An implementation of GE’s imagination markets. The Journal of Prediction Markets, 3(1): 17–39.Google Scholar
  109. Spellman, P. (2008). Crowd funding: Arts patronage by the masses. https://www.berklee.edu/bt/194/crowd_funding.html. Accessed 04 Aug 2016.
  110. Spohrer, J., Maglio, P. P., Bailey, J., & Gruhl, D. (2007). Steps toward a science of service systems. Computer, 40(1): 71–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Stathel, S. (2010). Innovation assessment via information markets: Experimental studies of illiquid information markets. Dissertation. Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, Germany.Google Scholar
  112. Stiver, A., Barroca, L., Minocha, S., Richards, M., & Roberts, D. (2015). Civic crowdfunding research: Challenges, opportunities, and future agenda. New Media & Society, 17(2): 249–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Storey, C. & Larbig, C. (2018). Absorbing customer knowledge: how customer involvement enables service design success. Journal of Service Research, 21(1): 101–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Surowiecki, J. (2005). The wisdom of crowds. Anchor Books.Google Scholar
  115. Terwiesch, C., & Xu, Y. (2008). Innovation contests, open innovation and multiagent problem solving. Management Science, 54(9): 1529–1543.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Teschner, F. (2012). Forecasting economic indices: Design, performance, and learning in prediction markets. Dissertation. Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, Germany.Google Scholar
  117. Toivonen, M., & Tuominen, T. (2009). Emergence of innovations in services. The Service Industries Journal, 29(7): 887–902.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Trischler, J., Pervan, S. J., Kelly, S. J., & Scott, D. R. (2018). The value of codesign: The effect of customer involvement in service design teams. Journal of Service Research, 21(1): 75–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Valtakoski, A., & Järvi, K. (2016). Productization of knowledge-intensive services: Enabling knowledge sharing and cross-unit collaboration. Journal of Service Management, 27(3): 360–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. van de Vrande, V., de Jong, J. P. J., Vanhaverbeke, W., & de Rochemont, M. (2009). Open innovation in SMEs: Trends, motives and management challenges. Technovation, 29(6-7): 423–437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Vargo, S. L., & Lusch, R. F. (2004). Evolving to a new dominant logic for marketing. Journal of Marketing, 68(1): 1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Vogel, P., & Fischler-Strasak, U. (2014). Fostering sustainable innovation within organizations. In: C. Weidinger, F. Fischler, & R. Schmidpeter (Eds.), Sustainable entrepreneurship: Business success through sustainability. Springer, pp 191– 205.Google Scholar
  123. Wash, R., & Solomon, J. (2014). Coordinating donors on crowdfunding websites. In: Proceedings of the 17th ACM conference on computer supported cooperative work and social computing, CSCW, Baltimore, MD, USA.Google Scholar
  124. Wessel, M., Thies, F., & Benlian, A. (2016). The emergence and effects of fake social information: Evidence from crowdfunding. Decision Support Systems, 90: 75– 85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. West, J., & Bogers, M. (2014). Leveraging external sources of innovation: A review of research on open innovation. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 31(4): 814–831.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. West, J., & Gallagher, S. (2006). Challenges of open innovation: The paradox of firm investment in open-source software. R&D Management, 36(3): 319–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Wolfers, J., & Zitzewitz, E. (2004). Prediction markets. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 18(2): 107–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Wolfers, J., & Zitzewitz, E. (2006). Prediction markets in theory and practice. IZA Discussion Papers, No. 1991. http://hdl.handle.net/10419/33384, Accessed 15 Sept 2018.Google Scholar
  129. Woolley, A. W., Chabris, C. F., Pentland, A., Hashmi, N., & Malone, T. W. (2010). Evidence for a collective intelligence factor in the performance of human groups. Science, 330(6004): 686–688.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Zuchowski, O., Posegga, O., Schlagwein, D., & Fischbach, K. (2016). Internal crowdsourcing: Conceptual framework, structured review and research agenda. Journal of Information Technology, 31(2): 166–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Zvilichovsky, D., Inbar, Y., & Barzilay, O. (2013, December). Playing both sides of the market: Success and reciprocity on crowdfunding platforms. In: Proceedings of the thirty fourth international conference on information systems, ICIS. Milan, Italy.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Niels Feldmann
    • 1
    Email author
  • Hansjörg Fromm
    • 1
  • Gerhard Satzger
    • 1
  • Ronny Schüritz
    • 1
  1. 1.Karlsruhe Institute of TechnologyKarlsruheGermany

Personalised recommendations