Psychobiological Processes in the Development of Behavioral Inhibition



Despite robust prediction from early behavioral inhibition to anxiety development, evidence is accumulating for heterogeneity among children identified as behaviorally inhibited. In this chapter, we examine how behavioral inhibition is associated with a range of psychophysiological markers to better understand this heterogeneity. We suggest that these measures are not just correlated with behavioral inhibition but are markers of underlying processes that help to characterize which children are at highest risk for anxiety, thereby reducing heterogeneity. We organize the literature by discussing physiological markers as indexing reactivity and regulation, consistent with a temperament framework, and cover a wide range of physiological measures linked to behavioral inhibition and risk for anxiety, including electrodermal activity, cortisol, and EEG asymmetry, respiratory sinus arrhythmia, EEG delta-beta coupling, and event-related potentials. The findings presented herein support the notion that these physiological markers index mechanisms that contribute to children’s behavioral manifestation of behavioral inhibition and may exacerbate the risk for inhibited children to remain on the trajectory of developing anxiety symptoms.


Temperament Behavioral Inhibition Psychophysiology Anxiety EEG Cortisol 


  1. Amodio, D. M., Master, S. L., Yee, C. M., & Taylor, S. E. (2008). Neurocognitive components of the behavioral inhibition and activation systems: Implications for theories of self-regulation. Psychophysiology, 45, 11–19. Scholar
  2. Balconi, M., & Mazza, G. (2010). Lateralisation effect in comprehension of emotional facial expression: A comparison between EEG alpha band power and behavioural inhibition (BIS) and activation (BAS) systems. Laterality: Asymmetries of body. Brain and Cognition, 15, 361–384. Scholar
  3. Balle, M., Tortella-Feliu, M., & Bornas, X. (2013). Distinguishing youths at risk for anxiety disorders from self-reported BIS sensitivity and its psychophysiological concomitants. International Journal of Psychology, 48, 964–977. Scholar
  4. Bauer, A. M., Quas, J. A., & Boyce, W. T. (2002). Associations between physiological reactivity and children’s behavior: Advantages of a multisystem approach. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 23, 102–113. Scholar
  5. Beauchaine, T. (2001). Vagal tone, development, and Gray's motivational theory: Toward an integrated model of autonomic nervous system functioning in psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 13, 183–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Beesdo, K., Knappe, S., & Pine, D. S. (2009). Anxiety and anxiety disorders in children and adolescents: Developmental issues and implications for DSM-V. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 32, 483–524. Scholar
  7. Boucsein, W. (2012). Electrodermal activity. Berlin, Germany: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brooker, R. J., & Buss, K. A. (2009). Dynamic measures of RSA predict distress and regulation in toddlers. Developmental Psychobiology, 52, 372–382. Scholar
  9. Brooker, R. J., & Buss, K. A. (2014a). Toddler fearfulness is linked to individual differences in error-related negativity during preschool. Developmental Neuropsychology, 39, 1–8. Scholar
  10. Brooker, R. J., & Buss, K. A. (2014b). Harsh parenting and fearfulness in toddlerhood interact to predict amplitudes of preschool error-related negativity. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 9, 148–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brooker, R. J., Buss, K. A., & Dennis, T. A. (2011). Error-monitoring brain activity is associated with affective behaviors in young children. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 1, 141–152. Scholar
  12. Brooker, R. J., Buss, K. A., Lemery-Chalfant, K., Aksan, N., Davidson, R. J., & Goldsmith, H. H. (2013). The development of stranger fear in infancy and toddlerhood: Normative development, individual differences, antecedents, and outcomes. Developmental Science, 16, 864–878. Scholar
  13. Buss, K. A. (2011). Which fearful toddlers should we worry about? Context, fear regulation, and anxiety risk. Developmental Psychology, 47, 804–819. Scholar
  14. Buss, K. A., Davis, E. L., & Kiel, E. J. (2011). Allostatic and environmental load in toddlers predicts anxiety in preschool and kindergarten. Development and Psychopathology, 23, 1069–1087. Scholar
  15. Buss, K. A., Davis, E. L., Kiel, E. J., Brooker, R. J., Beekman, C., & Early, M. C. (2013). Dysregulated fear predicts social wariness and social anxiety symptoms during kindergarten. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 42, 603–616. Scholar
  16. Buss, K. A., Davis, E. L., Ram, N., & Coccia, M. (2018). Dysregulated fear, social inhibition, and respiratory sinus arrhythmia: A replication and extension. Child Development, 89 (3, e214-e228). Scholar
  17. Buss, K. A., Dennis, T. A., Brooker, R. J., & Sippel, L. M. (2011). An ERP study of conflict monitoring in 4–8-year old children: Associations with temperament. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 1, 131–140. Scholar
  18. Buss, K. A., & Kiel, E. J. (2013). Temperamental risk factors for pediatric anxiety disorders. In Pediatric anxiety disorders (pp. 47–68). New York, NY: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Buss, K. A., Morales, S., Cho, S., & Philbrook, L. (2015). A biopsychosocial framework for infant temperament and socioemotional development. In S. D. Calkins (Ed.), Handbook of infant biopsychosocial development; handbook of infant biopsychosocial development (pp. 232–258). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  20. Calkins, S. D. (2011). Caregiving as coregulation: Psychobiological processes and child functioning. In A. Booth, S. M. McHale, & N. S. Landale (Eds.), Biosocial foundations of family processes; biosocial foundations of family processes (pp. 49–59). New York, NY: Springer. Scholar
  21. Calkins, S. D., Fox, N. A., & Marshall, T. R. (1996). Behavioral and physiological antecedents of inhibited and uninhibited behavior. Child Development, 67, 523–540.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Calkins, S. D., Graziano, P. A., Berdan, L. E., Keane, S. P., & Degnan, K. A. (2008). Predicting cardiac vagal regulation in early childhood from maternal-child relationship quality during toddlerhood. Developmental Psychobiology, 50, 751–766. Scholar
  23. Cho, S., & Buss, K. A. (2017). Toddler parasympathetic regulation and fear: Links to maternal appraisal and behavior. Developmental Psychobiology, 59, 197–208. Scholar
  24. Chronis-Tuscano, A., Degnan, K. A., Pine, D. S., Pérez-Edgar, K., Henderson, H. A., Diaz, Y., … Fox, N. A. (2009). Stable early maternal report of behavioral inhibition predicts lifetime social anxiety disorder in adolescence. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 48, 928–935. Scholar
  25. Davidson, R. J. (1988). EEG measures and cerebral asymmetry: Conceptual and methodological issues. International Journal of Neuroscience, 39, 71–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Davidson, R. J., Jackson, D. C., & Kalin, N. H. (2000). Emotion, plasticity, context, and regulation: Perspectives from affective neuroscience. Psychological Bulletin, 126, 890–909. Scholar
  27. Davidson, R. J., & Rickman, M. (1999). Behavioral inhibition and the emotional circuitry of the brain: Stability and plasticity during the early childhood years. In L. A. Schmidt & J. Schulkin (Eds.), Extreme fear, shyness, and social phobia: Origins, biological mechanisms, and clinical outcomes; extreme fear, shyness, and social phobia: Origins, biological mechanisms, and clinical outcomes (pp. 67–87). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Scholar
  28. Davis, E. L., & Buss, K. A. (2012). Moderators of the relation between shyness and behavior with peers: Cortisol dysregulation and maternal emotion socialization. Social Development, 21, 801–820. Scholar
  29. Degnan, K. A., & Fox, N. A. (2007). Behavioral inhibition and anxiety disorders: Multiple levels of a resilience process. Development and Psychopathology, 19, 729–746. Scholar
  30. Dennis, T. A., & Chen, C. (2009). Trait anxiety and conflict monitoring following threat: An ERP study. Psychophysiology, 46, 122–131. Scholar
  31. Dettmer, A., Novak, M., Suomi, S., & Meyer, J. (2012). Physiological and behavioral adaptation to relocation stress in differentially reared rhesus monkeys: Hair cortisol as a biomarker for anxiety-related responses. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 37, 191–199. Scholar
  32. Dietrich, A., Riese, H., van Roon, A. M., Minderaa, R. B., Oldehinkel, A. J., Neeleman, J., & Rosmalen, J. G. (2009). Temperamental activation and inhibition associated with autonomic function in preadolescents. The TRAILS study. Biological Psychology, 81(1), 67–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Doom, J. R., & Gunnar, M. R. (2013). Stress physiology and developmental psychopathology: Past, present, and future. Development and Psychopathology, 25, 1359–1373. Scholar
  34. Eisenberg, N., Cumberland, A., Spinrad, T. L., Fabes, R. A., Shepard, S. A., Reiser, M., … Guthrie, I. K. (2001). The relations of regulation and emotionality to children’s externalizing and internalizing problem behavior. Child Development, 72, 1112–1134. Scholar
  35. El-Sheikh, M., Keiley, M., Erath, S., & Dyer, W. J. (2013). Marital conflict and growth in children’s internalizing symptoms: The role of autonomic nervous system activity. Developmental Psychology, 49, 92–108. Scholar
  36. El-Sheikh, M., Kouros, C. D., Erath, S., Cummings, E. M., Keller, P., & Staton, L. (2009). Marital conflict and children’s externalizing behavior: Pathways involving interactions between parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system activity. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 74, vii.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Essex, M. J., Klein, M. H., Slattery, M. J., Goldsmith, H. H., & Kalin, N. H. (2010). Early risk factors and developmental pathways to chronic high inhibition and social anxiety disorder in adolescence. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 167, 40–46. Scholar
  38. Falkenstein, M., Hohnsbein, J., Hoormann, J., & Blanke, L. (1991). Effects of crossmodal divided attention on late ERP components: II. Error processing in choice reaction tasks. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 78, 447–455. Scholar
  39. Foti, D., & Hajcak, G. (2008). Deconstructing reappraisal: Descriptions preceding arousing pictures modulate the subsequent neural response. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 20, 977–988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Fowles, D., Kochanka, G., & Murray, K. (2000). Electrodermal activity and temperament in preschool children. Psychophysiology, 37, 777–787.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Fox, N. A. (1989). Psychophysiological correlates of emotional reactivity during the first year of life. Developmental Psychology, 25, 364–372. Scholar
  42. Fox, N. A. (1991). If it’s not left, it’s right. American Psychologist, 46, 863–872.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Fox, N. A. & Davidson, R. J. (1984). Hemispheric substrates of affect: A developmental model. In N. A. Fox & R. J. Davidson (Eds.), The Psychobiology of Affective Development (pp. 353–381). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  44. Fox, N. A., Henderson, H. A., Marshall, P. J., Nichols, K. E., & Ghera, M. M. (2005). Behavioral inhibition: Linking biology and behavior within a developmental framework. Annual Review of Psychology, 56, 235–262. Scholar
  45. Fox, N. A., Henderson, H. A., Rubin, K. H., Calkins, S. D., & Schmidt, L. A. (2001). Continuity and discontinuity of behavioral inhibition and exuberance: Psychophysiological and behavioral influences across the first four years of life. Child Development, 72, 1–21. Scholar
  46. Fox, N. A., Rubin, K. H., Calkins, S. D., Marshall, T. R., Coplan, R. J., Porges, S. W., … Stewart, S. (1995). Frontal activation asymmetry and social competence at four years of age. Child Development, 66, 1770–1784. Scholar
  47. Fox, N. A., Snidman, N., Haas, S. A., Degnan, K. A., & Kagan, J. (2015). The relations between reactivity at 4 months and behavioral inhibition in the second year: Replication across three independent samples. Infancy, 20, 98–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. García Coll, C., Kagan, J., & Reznick, J. (1984). Behavioral inhibition in young children. Child Development, 55, 1005–1019. Scholar
  49. Gilissen, R., Koolstra, C. M., van Ijzendoorn, M. H., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M., & van der Veer, R. (2007). Physiological reactions of preschoolers to fear-inducing film clips: Effects of temperamental fearfulness and quality of the parent-child relationship. Developmental Psychobiology, 49, 187–195. Scholar
  50. Harmon-Jones, E., Gable, P. A., & Peterson, C. K. (2010). The role of asymmetric frontal cortical activity in emotion-related phenomena: A review and update. Biological Psychology, 84, 451–462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hastings, P. D., Kahle, S., & Nuselovici, J. M. (2014). How well socially wary preschoolers fare over time depends on their parasympathetic regulation and socialization. Child Development, 85, 1586–1600. Scholar
  52. Hastings, P. D., Nuselovici, J. N., Utendale, W. T., Coutya, J., McShane, K. E., & Sullivan, C. (2008). Applying the polyvagal theory to children's emotion regulation: Social context, socialization, and adjustment. Biological Psychology, 79, 299–306. Scholar
  53. Hastings, P. D., Sullivan, C., McShane, K. E., Coplan, R. J., Utendale, W. T., & Vyncke, J. D. (2008). Parental socialization, vagal regulation, and preschoolers’ anxious difficulties: Direct mothers and moderated fathers. Child Development, 79, 45–64. Scholar
  54. Henderson, H. A., Fox, N. A., & Rubin, K. H. (2001). Temperamental contributions to social behavior: The moderating roles of frontal EEG asymmetry and gender. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 68–74. Scholar
  55. Huang, Y.-X., & Luo, Y.-J. (2006). Temporal course of emotional negativity bias: An ERP study. Neuroscience Letters, 398, 91–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hutt, R. L., Buss, K. A., & Kiel, E. J. (2013). Caregiver protective behavior, toddler fear and sadness, and toddler cortisol reactivity in novel contexts. Infancy, 18, 708–728. Scholar
  57. Kagan, J. (1994). The nature of the child. New York, NY, US: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  58. Kagan, J., & Fox, N. A. (2006). Biology, culture, and temperamental biases. In N. Eisenberg, W. Damon & R. M. Lerner (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Social, emotional, and personality development Vol. 3 (6th ed. pp. 167-225) John Wiley & Sons Inc, Hoboken, NJ.Google Scholar
  59. Kalin, N. H. (1993). The neurobiology of fear. Scientific American, 268, 94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kalin, N. H., Shelton, S. E., Fox, A. S., Oakes, T. R., & Davidson, R. J. (2005). Brain regions associated with the expression and contextual regulation of anxiety in primates. Biological Psychiatry, 58, 796–804. Scholar
  61. Knyazev, G. G., & Slobodskaya, H. R. (2003). Personality trait of behavioral inhibition is associated with oscillatory systems reciprocal relationships. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 48, 247–261. Scholar
  62. Ladouceur, C. D., Conway, A., & Dahl, R. E. (2010). Attentional control moderates relations between negative affect and neural correlates of action monitoring in adolescence. Developmental Neuropsychology, 35, 194–211. Scholar
  63. Lahat, A., Lamm, C., Chronis-Tuscano, A., Pine, D. S., Henderson, H. A., & Fox, N. A. (2014). Early behavioral inhibition and increased error monitoring predict later social phobia symptoms in childhood. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 53, 447–455. Scholar
  64. Lamm, C., Walker, O. L., Degnan, K. A., Henderson, H. A., Pine, D. S., McDermott, J. M., & Fox, N. A. (2014). Cognitive control moderates early childhood temperament in predicting social behavior in 7-year-old children: An ERP study. Developmental Science, 17, 667–681. Scholar
  65. Licht, C. M. M., de Geus, E. J. C., van Dyck, R., & Penninx, B. W. J. H. (2009). Association between anxiety disorders and heart rate variability in the Netherlands study of depression and anxiety (NESDA). Psychosomatic Medicine, 71, 508–518. Scholar
  66. Luck, S. J. (2014). An introduction to the event-related potential technique. Cambridge, MA: MIT press.Google Scholar
  67. Mackrell, S. V. M., Sheikh, H. I., Kotelnikova, Y., Kryski, K. R., Jordan, P. L., Singh, S. M., & Hayden, E. P. (2014). Child temperament and parental depression predict cortisol reactivity to stress in middle childhood. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 123, 106–116. Scholar
  68. Marshall, P. J., & Stevenson-Hinde, J. (1998). Behavioral inhibition, heart period, and respiratory sinus arrhythmia in young children. Developmental Psychobiology, 33, 283–292.<283::AID-DEV8>3.0.CO;2-NCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. McDermott, J. M., Pérez-Edgar, K., Henderson, H. A., Chronis-Tuscano, A., Pine, D. S., & Fox, N. A. (2009). A history of childhood behavioral inhibition and enhanced response monitoring in adolescence are linked to clinical anxiety. Biological Psychiatry, 65, 445–448. Scholar
  70. McEwen, B. S. (1998). Protective and damaging effects of stress mediators. New England Journal of Medicine, 338, 171–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Meyer, A., Hajcak, G., Torpey, D. C., Kujawa, A., Kim, J., Bufferd, S., … Klein, D. N. (2013). Increased error-related brain activity in six-year-old children with clinical anxiety. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 41, 1257–1266. Scholar
  72. Meyer, A., Proudfit, G. H., Bufferd, S. J., Kujawa, A. J., Laptook, R. S., Torpey, D. C., & Klein, D. N. (2015). Self-reported and observed punitive parenting prospectively predicts increased error-related brain activity in six-year-old children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 43, 821–829. Scholar
  73. Miskovic, V., Campbell, M. J., Santesso, D. L., Van Ameringen, M., Mancini, C. L., & Schmidt, L. A. (2011). Frontal brain oscillatory coupling in children of parents with social phobia: A pilot study. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 23, 111–114. Scholar
  74. Miskovic, V., Moscovitch, D. A., Santesso, D. L., McCabe, R. E., Antony, M. M., & Schmidt, L. A. (2011). Changes in EEG cross-frequency coupling during cognitive behavioral therapy for social anxiety disorder. Psychological Science, 22, 507–516. Scholar
  75. Murray, K. T., & Kochanska, G. (2002). Effortful control: Factor structure and relation to externalizing and internalizing behaviors. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 30, 503–514. Scholar
  76. Nachmias, M., Gunnar, M., Mangelsdorf, S., Parritz, R. H., & Buss, K. (1996). Behavioral inhibition and stress reactivity: The moderating role of attachment security. Child Development, 67, 508–522. Scholar
  77. Pagliaccio, D., Luby, J. L., Bogdan, R., Agrawal, A., Gaffrey, M. S., Belden, A. C., … Barch, D. M. (2014). Stress-system genes and life stress predict cortisol levels and amygdala and hippocampal volumes in children. Neuropsychopharmacology, 39, 1245–1253. Scholar
  78. Paret, L., Bailey, H. N., Roche, J., Bureau, J., & Moran, G. (2015). Preschool ambivalent attachment associated with a lack of vagal withdrawal in response to stress. Attachment & Human Development, 17, 65–82. Scholar
  79. Pérez-Edgar, K., & Fox, N. A. (2005). Temperament and anxiety disorders. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 14, 681–706. Scholar
  80. Pérez-Edgar, K., Kujawa, A., Nelson, S. K., Cole, C., & Zapp, D. J. (2013). The relation between electroencephalogram asymmetry and attention biases to threat at baseline and under stress. Brain and Cognition, 82, 337–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Pérez-Edgar, K., Schmidt, L. A., Henderson, H. A., Schulkin, J., & Fox, N. A. (2008). Salivary cortisol levels and infant temperament shape developmental trajectories in boys at risk for behavioral maladjustment. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 33, 916–925. Scholar
  82. Phelps, R. A., Brooker, R. J., & Buss, K. A. (2016). Toddlers’ dysregulated fear predicts delta–beta coupling during preschool. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 17, 28–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Pine, D., Helfinstein, S., Bar-Haim, Y., Nelson, E., & Fox, N. (2009). Challenges in developing novel treatments for childhood disorders: Lessons from research on anxiety. Neuropsychopharmacology, 34, 213–228. Scholar
  84. Porges, S. W. (1996). Physiological regulation in high-risk infants: A model for assessment and potential intervention. Development and Psychopathology, 8, 29–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Porges, S. W. (2007). The polyvagal perspective. Biological Psychology, 74, 116–143. Scholar
  86. Porges, S. W., Doussard-Roosevelt, J. A., Portales, A. L., & Suess, P. E. (1994). Cardiac vagal tone: Stability and relation to difficultness in infants and 3-year-olds. Developmental Psychobiology, 27, 289–300. Scholar
  87. Porges, S. W., & Furman, S. A. (2011). The early development of the autonomic nervous system provides a neural platform for social behaviour: A polyvagal perspective. Infant and Child Development, 20, 106–118. Scholar
  88. Putman, P. (2011). Resting state EEG delta-beta coherence in relation to anxiety, behavioral inhibition, and selective attentional processing of threatening stimuli. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 80, 63–68. Scholar
  89. Rothbart, M. K. (2011). Becoming who we are: Temperament and personality in development. New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  90. Rothbart, M. K., & Bates, J. E. (2006). Temperament. In N. Eisenberg (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Social, emotional, and personality development (6th ed., pp. 99–166). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
  91. Russ, S. J., Herbert, J., Cooper, P., Gunnar, M. R., Goodyer, I., Croudace, T., & Murray, L. (2012). Cortisol levels in response to starting school in children at increased risk for social phobia. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 37, 462–474. Scholar
  92. Scarpa, A., Raine, A., Venables, P. H., & Mednick, S. A. (1997). Heart rate and skin conductance in behaviorally inhibited mauritian children. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 106, 182–190. Scholar
  93. Schupp, H. T., Öhman, A., Junghöfer, M., Weike, A. I., Stockburger, J., & Hamm, A. O. (2004). The facilitated processing of threatening faces: An ERP analysis. Emotion, 4, 189–200. Scholar
  94. Schwartz, C. E., Wright, C. I., Shin, L. M., Kagan, J., & Rauch, S. (2003). Inhibited and uninhibited infants “grown up”: Adult amygdalar response to novelty. Science, 300, 1952–1953.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Shackman, A. J., Fox, A. S., Oler, J. A., Shelton, S. E., Davidson, R. J., & Kalin, N. H. (2013). Neural mechanisms underlying heterogeneity in the presentation of anxious temperament. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 110, 6145–6150. Scholar
  96. Smider, N. A., Essex, M. J., Kalin, N. H., Buss, K. A., Klein, M. H., Davidson, R. J., & Goldsmith, H. H. (2002). Salivary cortisol as a predictor of socio-emotional adjustment during kindergarten: A prospective study. Child Development, 73, 75–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Suess, P. E., Porges, S. W., & Plude, D. J. (1994). Cardiac vagal tone and sustained attention in school-age children. Psychophysiology, 31, 17–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Sulik, M. J., Eisenberg, N., Silva, K. M., Spinrad, T. L., & Kupfer, A. (2013). Respiratory sinus arrhythmia, shyness, and effortful control in preschool-age children. Biological Psychology, 92, 241–248. Scholar
  99. Taber-Thomas, B., Galinsky, P., Morales, S., Thai, N., & Pérez-Edgar, K. (in prep). Intrinsic functional correlates of frontal EEG asymmetry in developmental risk for psychopathology.Google Scholar
  100. Tarullo, A. R., Mliner, S., & Gunnar, M. R. (2011). Inhibition and exuberance in preschool classrooms: Associations with peer social experiences and changes in cortisol across the preschool year. Developmental Psychology, 47, 1374–1388. Scholar
  101. Thai, N., Taber-Thomas, B., & Pérez-Edgar, K. E. (2016). Neural correlates of attention biases, behavioral inhibition, and social anxiety in children: An ERP study. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 19, 200–210. Scholar
  102. Van Veen, V., & Carter, C. S. (2002). The anterior cingulate as a conflict monitor: FMRI and ERP studies. Physiology & Behavior, 77, 477–482. Scholar
  103. Whitworth, J. A., Williamson, P. M., Mangos, G., & Kelly, J. J. (2005). Cardiovascular consequences of cortisol excess. Vascular Health and Risk Management, 1, 291–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyClarion UniversityClarionUSA

Personalised recommendations