Cross-Sectional Studies

  • Bryan Kestenbaum


Cross-sectional studies are defined by measurement of the exposure and the outcome of the study at the same time. There is no follow-up time in cross-sectional studies. Consequently, cross-sectional study data are useful for determining the relative prevalence of a disease or condition but are typically inadequate for discerning temporal relationships unless there is strong plausibility for one of the directions of association.

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bryan Kestenbaum
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Nephrology, Department of MedicineUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA

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