Population, Exposure, and Outcome

  • Bryan Kestenbaum


A study population refers to all people who enter a research study, regardless of whether they are exposed, are treated, develop the outcome of interest, or drop out of the study before completion. The exposure and outcome of a study depend on the proposed study question. The exposure refers to any characteristic that may explain or predict the presence of a study outcome. The outcome refers to the characteristic that is being predicted.

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bryan Kestenbaum
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Nephrology, Department of MedicineUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA

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