Hypothesis Tests in Practice

  • Bryan Kestenbaum


Hypothesis tests, such as the t-test, chi-square test, and ANOVA test, yield p-values that represent the probability of observing a particular study result, or a more extreme result, if a pre-specified null hypothesis about the population were true. A p-value threshold, such as 0.05, is typically used to declare statistical significance. Consequently, a hypothesis test may declare a result to be significant when in fact there is no actual difference in the population (type I error) or declare a result to be nonsignificant when in fact there is an actual difference in the population (type II error). Study power, which is the probability of not making a type II error, is influenced by sample size, effect size, variation, and the threshold value for declaring significance.

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bryan Kestenbaum
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Nephrology, Department of MedicineUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA

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