Conclusion: ASEAN as a Successful Regional Organization? OIC as an Alternative to the Caliphate? Revisiting the Main Puzzles

  • Mujtaba Ali Isani


In this chapter, I summarize the findings and revisit my main questions. The chapter submits that Muslims’ public opinion toward regional organizations might not everywhere be negative. In the case of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), confidence among Muslims in Malaysia and Indonesia is quite high. Hence, I argue that performance evaluations, rather than religious/regional identity or anti-Western attitudes, explain Muslim attitudes toward regional organizations. Regional differences in the attitudes of Muslims across the world represent a very compelling future puzzle. Additionally, I point toward the need to collect more data on the Organisation for Islamic Cooperation (OIC), as this institution might come closest to the concept of the Caliphate. How can we make sense of the findings of the dissertation? I argue that performance might have a large influence on Muslim citizens’ evaluations of international institutions; perhaps, Muslims only yearn for the Caliphate if they are disappointed in the current global order.


ASEAN OIC Performance Muslim Attitudes 


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Authors and Affiliations

  • Mujtaba Ali Isani
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Political ScienceUniversity of MuensterMuensterGermany

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