Multilevel Pulse Amplitude Modulation Transmissions for Data Center Applications

  • Rafael Carvalho FigueiredoEmail author
  • André L. N. Souza
  • Stenio M. Ranzini
  • Andrea Chiuchiarelli
Part of the Telecommunications and Information Technology book series (TIT)


Four-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM4) is appearing as an important option for many applications that require optical communications at high data rate for short distances and/or with low complexity, such as Data Center interconnects. In this sense, this chapter aims to evaluate key features requirements for PAM4 transmissions focusing on short-reach DC applications. Therefore, we present a software to emulate PAM4 transmission at a high baud rate (56 GBd) in order to evaluate different configurations and impairments that could affect data transmission in the C-band, namely the digital signal processing (DSP) complexity, bandwidth limitation, chromatic dispersion tolerance, differential group delay (DGD) tolerance, and analog-to-digital converter (ADC) sampling requirements.


Differential Group Delay (DGD) CD Tolerance Data Center Interconnection Chromatic Dispersion (CD) High Baud 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors thank Jacklyn D. Reis and Luis H. H. Carvalho for their helpful comments. The authors also thank Arley H. Salvador for reviewing a draft of this chapter. This work was partially supported by FUNTTEL/FINEP and by Sao Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP), grant n.2015/25513-6.


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rafael Carvalho Figueiredo
    • 1
    Email author
  • André L. N. Souza
    • 1
  • Stenio M. Ranzini
    • 1
  • Andrea Chiuchiarelli
    • 1
  1. 1.CPqDOptical Technologies DivisionCampinasBrazil

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