Advertisement

US/Taliban Relations and the Intervention of Domestic Politics

  • Jonathan CristolEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

The Al Qaeda attacks in Kenya and Tanzania brought global attention to both Osama bin Laden and to the Taliban. President Clinton responded with cruise missile strikes against Al Qaeda training camps near Khost, Afghanistan. This chapter looks at US/Taliban relations in the year after that strike. This time period was categorized by extreme pressure on the Clinton Administration from American feminist groups not to recognize the Taliban as the legitimate government of Afghanistan. The Clinton Administration was publicly supportive of those groups but, in the field, the priority was Osama bin Laden. The US and the Taliban met repeatedly to find a compromise that would allow them to expel bin Laden. There were Taliban officials who disapproved of bin Laden’s presence in Afghanistan, but domestic politics, and Mullah Omar’s intransigence, made it difficult to work with Washington.

Keywords

Afghanistan Bill Clinton, Feminist Majority Foundation Mavis Leno Taliban Women’s rights 

References

  1. Afghan Women’s Network. 1997. Afghanistan: The Biggest Prison for Women in the World. Off Our Backs, March 1997, 27(3), 12–13.Google Scholar
  2. Albright, Madeline. 1998a. Message to the Taliban on bin Laden [Secretary of State Albright to US Embassy Islamabad]. 23 August 1998. US Department of State, document accessed at the National Security Archive, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  3. Albright, Madeline. 1998b. Afghanistan: Taliban’s Mullah Omar 8/22 Contact with State Department [Secretary of State Albright to US Embassy Islamabad]. 23 August 1998. US Department of State, document accessed at the National Security Archive, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  4. Albright, Madeline. 1998c. Afghanistan: Message to Mullah Omar [Secretary of State Albright to US Embassy Islamabad]. 1 October 1998. US Department of State, document accessed at the National Security Archive, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  5. Albright, Madeline. 2005. Madame Secretary: A Memoir. New York: Miramax.Google Scholar
  6. Anonymous. Redacted. 1998. Planning by Osama bin Laden to Hijack US Airplane; Successful Circumvention of Security Measures in US Airport [to White House Situation Room]. 3 December 1998. Central Intelligence Agency, document accessed at the National Security Archive, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  7. Ariana Afghan Airlines: Assets and Activities [redacted]. 1999. 29 July 1999. Central Intelligence Agency, document accessed at the National Security Archive, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  8. bin Laden, Osama. 1998. Text: Osama bin Laden’s 1998 interview [with Al Jazeera]. The Guardian, 8 October 1998.Google Scholar
  9. Boxer, Barbara. 1999. Senate Resolution 68. 106th Congress, 1st Session. 17 March 1999. Government Publications Office.Google Scholar
  10. Burleigh, Peter. 1998. The Situation in Afghanistan and Its Implications for International Peace and Security. 84th Plenary Meeting of the UN General Assembly, Official Records, 9 December 1998.Google Scholar
  11. Carlson, Margaret. 1999. All Wrapped Up with Nowhere to Go. Time, 12 April 1999, 153(14). Web.Google Scholar
  12. Chang, Yahlin. 1999. Hollywood’s Latest Cause. Newsweek, 6 December 1999, 134(23), 42. Web.Google Scholar
  13. Clinton, Hillary. 1998. White House Remarks for Human Rights Day. 10 December 1998. The Clinton White House, National Archives. Web.Google Scholar
  14. Clinton, Hillary. 2003. Living History. New York: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
  15. Clinton, William Jefferson. 1998. Address to the Nation on Military Action Against Terrorist Sites in Afghanistan and Sudan. 20 August 1998. Public Papers of the President, Washington, DC: Government Publications Office, p. 1460.Google Scholar
  16. Clinton, William J. 1999a. Remarks at the Sixth Millennium Evening at the White House. 15 March 1999. Public Papers of the President of the United States: William J. Clinton, Book 1. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, pp. 381–384.Google Scholar
  17. Clinton, William J. 1999b. Remarks at a Democratic National Committee Reception. 19 March 1999. Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents, 29 March 1999, 35(12), 485–487.Google Scholar
  18. Clinton, William J. 1999c. Remarks at the Seventh Millennium Evening at the White House. 12 April 1999. Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents, 19 April 1999, 35(15), 631–638.Google Scholar
  19. Clinton, William J. 1999d. Remarks and a question-and-answer session with the American Society of Newspaper Editors in San Francisco, CA. 15 April 1999. Public Papers of the President of the United States: William J. Clinton, Book 1. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, pp. 551–561.Google Scholar
  20. Clinton, William J. 1999e. Letter to Congressional Leaders Reporting on the National Emergency with Respect to the Taliban. 4 July 1999. Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents, 12 July 1999, 35(27), 1283.Google Scholar
  21. Clinton, William J. 1999f. Statement on the National Emergency with Respect to the Taliban. 6 July 1999. Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents, 12 July 1999, 35(27), 1285.Google Scholar
  22. Clinton, William J. 2004. My Life. New York: Alfred A Knopf.Google Scholar
  23. Coll, Steve. 2004. Ghost Wars: The Secret History of the CIA, Afghanistan, and bin Laden, from the Soviet Invasion to September 10, 2001. New York: Penguin Press.Google Scholar
  24. Crossette, Barbara. 1998. U.N. Delegate Will Visit Afghanistan to Push Talks. New York Times, 10 April 1998. Web.Google Scholar
  25. Crossette, Barbara. 2001. Taliban Explains Buddha Demolition. New York Times, 19 March 2001, p. A9.Google Scholar
  26. DCI UBL Update. 1999. 12 November 1999. Central Intelligence Agency, document accessed at the National Security Archive, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  27. Dhume, Sadanand. 1999. Mission Impossible? Taliban Tries to Mend Fences with the US. Far Eastern Economic Review, 11 March 1999, 162(10), 22–23.Google Scholar
  28. Douglas, Carol Anne. 1998. Afghanistan: Feminist Pressure Prevents Recognition. Off Our Backs 28 (2): 5.Google Scholar
  29. Dugger, Celia W. 2001. Muhammad Rabbani, Advocate of Some Moderation in Taliban. New York Times, 20 April 2001. Web.Google Scholar
  30. Eastham, Alan. 1998a. Sitrep 6: Pakistan/Afghanistan Reaction to US Strikes [from US Embassy Islamabad to Secretary of State Albright]. 25 August 1998. US Department of State, document accessed at the National Security Archive, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  31. Eastham, Alan. 1998b. Osama bin Laden: Taliban Spokesman Seeks New Proposal for Resolving Taliban Problem [from Secretary of State Albright to US Consulate Peshawar]. 28 November 1998. US Department of State, document accessed at the National Security Archive, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  32. Eastham, Alan. 1998c. Osama bin Laden: Charge Reiterates US Concerns to Taliban Official, Who Sticks to Well-Known Taliban Positions [from US Embassy Islamabad to Secretary of State Albright]. 19 December 1998. US Department of State, document accessed at the National Security Archive, Washington, DC. Google Scholar
  33. Eastham, Alan. 1998d. Osama bin Laden: Saudi Government Reportedly Turning the Screws on the Taliban on Visas; Haj May Be Affected [from US Embassy Islamabad to Secretary of State Albright]. 22 December 1998. US Department of State, document accessed at the National Security Archive, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  34. Eastham, Alan. 1998e. Osama bin Laden: Bin Laden Uses Recent Interviews to Assert Right to Use WMD, and to Threaten U.S. and U.K. over Iraq [from US Embassy Islamabad to Secretary of State Albright]. 28 December 1998. US Department of State, document accessed at the National Security Archive, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  35. Eastham, Alan. 1998f. Osama bin Laden: Chargé Underscores US Concerns on Interviews; Taliban Envoy Says bin Laden Hoodwinked Them and It Will Not Happen Again [from US Embassy Islamabad to Secretary of State Albright]. 30 December 1998. US Department of State, document accessed at the National Security Archive, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  36. Eastham, Alan. 1998g. Afghanistan: The Taliban’s Decision-Making Process and Leadership Structure [from US Embassy Islamabad to Secretary of State Albright]. 31 December 1998. US Department of State, document accessed at the National Security Archive, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  37. Filkins, Dexter. 2001. The Legacy of the Taliban is a Sad and Broken Land. New York Times, 31 December 2001, pp. A1, B4.Google Scholar
  38. Gannon, Kathy. 2005. I Is for Infidel. New York: Public Affairs.Google Scholar
  39. Gutman, Roy. 2008. How We Missed the Story: Osama bin Laden, the Taliban, and the Hijacking of Afghanistan. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace.Google Scholar
  40. Hirschkind, Charles, and Saba Mahmood. 2002. Feminism, the Taliban, and Politics of Counter-Insurgency. Anthropological Quarterly 75 (2): 339–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hoban, Phoebe. 2000. Jay’s Wife Fights for Afghan Women. US Weekly, 26 June 2000, 280, 38–39.Google Scholar
  42. Inderfurth, Karl F. 1999. Pushing for Peace in Afghanistan [from SA—Karl Inderfurth to Secretary Albright]. 25 March 1999. US Department of State, document accessed at the National Security Archive, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  43. Inderfurth, Karl F. 2001. Face to Face With the Taliban. 23 September 2001. Los Angeles Times, p. M3.Google Scholar
  44. Leno, Mavis. 1999. Dear Abby. The Ottawa Citizen, 23 July 1999, p. B6. Web.Google Scholar
  45. Maley, William. 2000. The Foreign Policy of the Taliban. 15 February 2000. Report, Council on Foreign Relations. Web.Google Scholar
  46. Maloney, Carolyn, and Dana Rohrbacher. 1999. House Resolution 187, 106th Congress, 1st Session. 25 May 1999. United States House of Representatives.Google Scholar
  47. Mann, Judy. 1999. The Grinding Terror of the Taliban. 9 July 1999. The Washington Post, p. C11.Google Scholar
  48. Mantilla, Karla. 1998. Afghanistan: Taliban Criticized: Leader Responds. Off Our Backs, March 1998, 28(3), 3.Google Scholar
  49. Milam, William B. 1998a. Afghanistan: Demarché to Taliban on New bin Ladin Threat [from US Embassy Islamabad to Secretary of State Albright]. 13 September 1998. US Department of State, document accessed at the National Security Archive, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  50. Milam, William B. 1998b. Afghanistan: Tensions Reportedly Mount Within Taliban as Ties with Saudi Arabia Deteriorate Over bin Laden [from US Embassy Islamabad to Secretary of State Albright]. 28 September 1998. US Department of State, document accessed at the National Security Archive, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  51. Milam, William B. 1998c. Pakistan: Ambassador Raises bin Laden with Foreign Minister Shamshad Ahmed [from US Embassy Islamabad to Secretary of State Albright]. 6 October 1998. US Department of State, document accessed at the National Security Archive, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  52. Milam, William B. 1998d. Osama Bin Laden: GOP Official—Claiming Taliban Want to Get Rid of bin Laden—Reviews Three Options for Dealing with Him [from US Embassy Islamabad to Secretary of State Albright]. 7 October 1998. US Department of State, document accessed at the National Security Archive, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  53. Milam, William B. 1998e. Osama bin Laden: High-Level Taliban Official Gives the Standard Line on Bin Laden with a Couple of Nuances, in October 11 Meeting [from US Embassy Islamabad to Secretary of State Albright]. 12 October 1998. US Department of State, document accessed at the National Security Archive, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  54. Milam, William B. 1998f. Osama bin Laden: Coordinating our Efforts and Sharpening our Message on bin Laden [from US Embassy Islamabad to Secretary of State Albright]. 19 October 1998. US Department of State, document accessed at the National Security Archive, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  55. Milam, William B. 1998g. Osama bin Laden: Taliban Announce Cut-Off Date for Receipt of Evidence; GOP Official Says Taliban Growing More Intransigent [from US Embassy Islamabad to Secretary of State Albright]. 10 November 1998. US Department of State, document accessed at the National Security Archive, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  56. Milam, William B. 1999a. Afghanistan: Taliban Seem to Have Less Funds and Supplies This Year, But the Problem Does Not Appear to be that Acute [from US Embassy Islamabad to Secretary of State Albright]. 17 February 1999. US Department of State, document accessed at the National Security Archive, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  57. Milam, William B. 1999b. Osama bin Laden: US Points Delivered to Taliban and Pakistani Government [from US Embassy Islamabad to Secretary of State Albright]. 29 May 1999. US Department of State, document accessed at the National Security Archive, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  58. National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States. 2004. The 9/11 Commission Report: Final Report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States. New York: W. W. Norton.Google Scholar
  59. Rashid, Ahmed. 1999. Heart of Darkness. Far Eastern Economic Review, 5 August 1999, 162(31), 8–10.Google Scholar
  60. Rashid, Ahmed. 2010. Taliban: Militant Islam, Oil and Fundamentalism in Central Asia, 2nd ed. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  61. Richter, Gary W. 1999. Osama bin Laden: A Case Study. 6 December 1999. Sandia National Laboratories, document accessed at the National Security Archive, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  62. Rosenberg, Emily S. 2002. Rescuing Women and Children. The Journal of American History 89 (2): 456–465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Rubin, Barnett. 1998. Testimony on the Situation in Afghanistan before the United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations. Council on Foreign Relations, 8 October 1998. Web.Google Scholar
  64. Simons, Thomas W. 1998a. Afghanistan: Reaction to US Strikes Follow Predictable Lines: Taliban Angry, Their Opponents Support US [from US Embassy Islamabad to Secretary of State Albright]. 21 August 1998. US Department of State, document accessed at the National Security Archive, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  65. Simons, Thomas W. 1998b. Sitrep 5: Pakistan/Afghanistan Reaction to US Strikes [from US Embassy Islamabad to Secretary of State Albright]. 24 August 1998. Department of State, document accessed at the National Security Archive, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  66. Soderberg, Nancy. 1998. The Situation in Afghanistan. 3952nd Meeting of the United Nations Security Council. 8 December 1998. Official Records of the Security Council, p. 7.Google Scholar
  67. Talbott, Strobe. 1998a. Afghanistan: Taliban Convene Ulema, Iran and bin Laden on the Agenda [to Secretary of State Albright]. 25 September 1998. US Department of State, document accessed at the National Security Archive, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  68. Talbott, Strobe. 1998b. Osama bin Laden: Message Delivered to Taliban [Secretary of State Albright to US Embassy Riyadh]. 11 November 1998. US Department of State, document accessed at the National Security Archive, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  69. Talking Points: CIA Operations Against Osama bin Laden. 1999. 10 February 1999. Central Intelligence Agency, document accessed at the National Security Archive, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  70. United Nations Security Council Resolution 1214. 8 December 1996. Web.Google Scholar
  71. Wright, Lawrence. 2007. The Looming Tower: Al-Qaeda and the Road to 9/11. New York: Vintage.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Levermore Global Scholars ProgramAdelphi UniversityGarden CityUSA

Personalised recommendations