Mathematical Learning and Its Difficulties in the Middle European Countries

  • Annemie DesoeteEmail author
  • Ann Dowker
  • Marcus Hasselhorn


Some children have severe and persistent difficulties with mathematics and are resistant to instruction. In this case, they are labelled as individuals with mathematical learning disabilities (MLD). In this chapter, the prevalence of MLD and the criteria used to define MLD in the UK, Germany and Belgium are described. Moreover, an introduction on the big picture and the PISA and TIMMS results as well as information on the educational policies is given. Finally the chapter elaborates on theories and educational practices and the role of research guiding practice in the Middle European countries.


Mathematical learning disabilities Prevalence Criteria Theories Research Middle European 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Annemie Desoete
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Ann Dowker
    • 3
  • Marcus Hasselhorn
    • 4
    • 5
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of Experimental Clinical and Health PsychologyUniversity of GhentGhentBelgium
  2. 2.Artevelde University CollegeGhentBelgium
  3. 3.Mathematical Development and Disabilities Research GroupUniversity of OxfordOxfordUK
  4. 4.German Institute for International Educational Research (DIPF)Frankfurt am MainGermany
  5. 5.Center for Individual Development and Adaptive Education of Children at Risk (IDeA)Frankfurt am MainGermany
  6. 6.Department of Educational PsychologyInstitute for Psychology, Goethe-UniversityFrankfurt am MainGermany

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