Three Frameworks for Assessing Responsiveness to Instruction as a Means of Identifying Mathematical Learning Disabilities

  • Lynn S. FuchsEmail author
  • Douglas Fuchs
  • Pamela M. Seethaler
  • Nan Zhu


The purpose of this chapter was to consider three frameworks for operationalizing responsiveness to intervention (RTI) as a means of identifying mathematical learning disabilities. We began with the most complex framework, Systemic RTI Reform, and then addressed two increasingly more efficient versions: Embedded RTI and Dynamic Assessment. We described how each framework is conceptualized and operationalized and explain how each attempts to assure quality instruction and to assess response to that instruction. We concluded by comparing the strengths and weaknesses of the three frameworks.


Mathematics learning disabilities Learning disabilities classification Response to intervention Dynamic Assessment Curriculum-based measurement 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lynn S. Fuchs
    • 1
    Email author
  • Douglas Fuchs
    • 1
  • Pamela M. Seethaler
    • 1
  • Nan Zhu
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Special EducationVanderbilt UniversityNashvilleUSA
  2. 2.Department of Special EducationCentral China Normal UniversityWuhanChina

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