Supporting the Acquisition of Expertise: Fostering Individual Development and Creating Professional Communities

  • Hans Gruber
  • Christian Harteis
Part of the Professional and Practice-based Learning book series (PPBL, volume 24)


Much emphasis is put on the analysis how best to support the acquisition of professional expertise by discussing (a) theories and empirical research that addresses the change of knowledge structures during the development of expertise, (b) the importance of individual efforts in deliberate practice, (c) the notion of situated learning as an appropriate theoretical pattern to understand the interrelation between individual and social contributions to professional development, (d) its connection to the historically well-established idea of apprenticeship, and finally (e) professional development as a process of growing into a community of experts.


  1. Ackerman, P. L. (1986). Individual differences in information processing: An investigation of intellectual abilities and task performance during practice. Intelligence, 10, 101–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ackerman, P. L. (1987). Individual differences in skill learning: An integration of psychometric and information processing perspectives. Psychological Bulletin, 102, 3–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ackerman, P. L. (1990). A correlational analysis of skill specificity: Learning, abilities, and individual differences. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 16, 883–901.Google Scholar
  4. Ackerman, P. L. (1992). Predicting individual differences in complex skill acquisition: Dynamics of ability determinants. Journal of Applied Psychology, 77, 598–614.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anderson, J. R. (1982). Acquisition of cognitive skill. Psychological Review, 89, 369–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Anderson, J. R., Reder, L. M., & Simon, H. A. (1996). Situated learning and education. Educational Researcher, 25(4), 5–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Anderson, J. R., Reder, L. M., & Simon, H. A. (1997). Situative versus cognitive perspectives: Form versus substance. Educational Researcher, 26(1), 18–21.Google Scholar
  8. Anderson, J. R., Greeno, J. G., Reder, L. M., & Simon, H. A. (2000). Perspectives on learning, thinking, and activity. Educational Researcher, 29(4), 11–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Barry, N. H., & Hallam, S. (2002). Practice. In R. Parncutt & G. E. McPherson (Eds.), The science and psychology of music performance (pp. 151–165). Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Benner, P. (2004). Using the Dreyfus model of skill acquisition to describe and interpret skill acquisition and clinical judgment in nursing practice and education. Bulletin of Science, Technology, & Society, 24, 188–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Billett, S. (2001c). Learning through work: Workplace affordances and personal engagement. Journal of Workplace Learning, 13, 209–214.Google Scholar
  12. Billett, S., Harteis, C., & Gruber, H. (2018). Developing occupational expertise through everyday work activities and interactions. In K. A. Ericsson, R. R. Hoffman, A. Kozbelt, & A. M. Williams (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of expertise and expert performance (2nd ed., pp. 105–126). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bloom, B. S. (Ed.). (1985). Developing talent in young people. New York: Ballantine.Google Scholar
  14. Blossfeld, H. P. (1992). Is the German dual system a model for a modern vocational training system? International Journal of Comparative Sociology, 33, 168–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Boshuizen, H. P. A. (2003). Expertise development: The transition between school and work. Heerlen: Open Universiteit Nederland.Google Scholar
  16. Boshuizen, H. P. A., Bromme, R., & Gruber, H. (2004a). On the long way from novice to expert and how travelling changes the traveller. In H. P. A. Boshuizen, R. Bromme, & H. Gruber (Eds.), Professional learning: Gaps and transitions on the way from novice to expert (pp. 3–8). Dordrecht: Kluwer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bransford, J. D., Goldman, S. R., & Vye, N. J. (1991). Making a difference in people’s ability to think: Reflections on a decade of work and some hopes for the future. In R. J. Sternberg & L. Okagaki (Eds.), Influences on children (pp. 147–180). Hillsdale: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  18. Chase, W. G., & Simon, H. A. (1973a). Perception in chess. Cognitive Psychology, 4, 55–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Chase, W. G., & Simon, H. A. (1973b). The mind’s eye in chess. In W. G. Chase (Ed.), Visual information processing (pp. 215–281). New York: Academic Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cleveland, A. A. (1907). The psychology of chess and of learning to play it. The American Journal of Psychology, 18, 269–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt. (1991). Technology and the design of generative learning environments. Educational Technology, 31(5), 34–40.Google Scholar
  22. Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt. (1992). The Jasper series as an example of anchored instruction: Theory, program, description, and assessment data. Educational Psychologist, 27, 291–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Colley, A., Banton, L., & Down, J. (1992). An expert-novice comparison in musical composition. Psychology of Music, 20, 124–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Collins, A., Brown, J. S., & Newman, S. E. (1989). Cognitive apprenticeship: Teaching the crafts of reading, writing and mathematics. In L. B. Resnick (Ed.), Knowing, learning and instruction (pp. 453–494). Hillsdale: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  25. Connell, M. W., Sheridan, K., & Gardner, H. (2003). On abilities and domains. In R. J. Sternberg & E. L. Grigorenko (Eds.), The psychology of abilities, competencies, and expertise (pp. 126–155). Washington: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1975). Beyond boredom and anxiety: Experiencing flow in work and play. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  27. Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow: The psychology of optimal experience. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  28. Dahlgren, L. O., & Marton, F. (1978). Students’ conceptions of subject matter: An aspect of learning and teaching in higher education. Studies in Higher Education, 3, 25–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Davidson, J. W., Howe, M. J., Moore, D. G., & Sloboda, J. A. (1996). The role of parental influences in the development of musical performance. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 14, 399–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Degner, S., Lehmann, A. C., & Gruber, H. (2003). Expert learning in the domain of jazz guitar music. In R. Kopiez, A. C. Lehmann, I. Wolther, & C. Wolf (Eds.), Proceedings of the 5th triennial ESCOM conference (pp. 384–388). Hannover: University of Music and Drama.Google Scholar
  31. Deissinger, T. (1996). Germany’s vocational training act: Its function as an instrument of quality control within a tradition-based vocational training system. Oxford Review of Education, 22, 317–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Derry, S., & Lesgold, A. (1996). Toward a situated social practice model for instructional design. In D. C. Berliner & R. C. Calfee (Eds.), Handbook of educational psychology (pp. 787–806). New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  33. Dreyfus, H. L., & Dreyfus, S. E. (1986). Mind over machine: The power of human intuition and expertise in the era of the computer. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  34. Ericsson, K. A. (2003). Development of elite performance and deliberate practice. In J. L. Starkes & K. A. Ericsson (Eds.), Expert performance in sports: Advances in research on sport expertise (pp. 49–83). Champaign: Human Kinetics.Google Scholar
  35. Ericsson, K. A. (2009). Enhancing the development of professional performance: Implications from the study of deliberate practice. In K. A. Ericsson (Ed.), The development of professional expertise: Toward measurement of expert performance and design of optimal learning environments (pp. 405–431). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ericsson, K. A., & Crutcher, R. J. (1990). The nature of exceptional performance. In P. B. Baltes, D. L. Featherman, & R. M. Lerner (Eds.), Life-span development and behavior (Vol. 10, pp. 187–217). Hillsdale: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  37. Ericsson, K. A., Krampe, R. T., & Tesch-Römer, C. (1993). The role of deliberate practice in the acquisition of expert performance. Psychological Review, 100, 363–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Fairbairn, G. J. (2002). Ethics, empathy and storytelling in professional development. Learning in Health and Social Care, 1, 22–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Filliettaz, L. (2011). Collective guidance at work: A resource for apprentices? Journal of Vocational Education and Training, 63, 485–504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Fitts, P. M., & Posner, M. I. (1967). Human performance. Belmont: Brooks & Cole.Google Scholar
  41. Gabrys, G., Weiner, A., & Lesgold, A. (1993). Learning by problem solving in a coached apprenticeship system. In M. Rabinowitz (Ed.), Cognitive science foundations of instruction (pp. 119–147). Hillsdale: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  42. Garb, H. N. (1989). Clinical judgement, clinical training and professional experience. Psychological Bulletin, 105, 387–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gardner, H. (1991). The tensions between education and development. Journal of Moral Education, 20, 113–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Gaudig, H. (1922). Freie geistige Schularbeit in Theorie und Praxis [Free mental school work in theory and practice]. Breslau: Hirt.Google Scholar
  45. Gräsel, C., & Mandl, H. (1993). Förderung des Erwerbs diagnostischer Strategien in fallbasierten Lernumgebungen [Promoting diagnostic strategies in case-based learning environments]. Unterrichtswissenschaft, 21, 355–369.Google Scholar
  46. Greeno, J. G. (1997). On claims that answer the wrong questions. Educational Researcher, 26(1), 5–17.Google Scholar
  47. Gruber, H., & Mandl, H. (2015). Apprenticeships and school learning: General considerations. In J. D. Wright (Ed.), International encyclopedia of the social & behavioral sciences (Vol. 1, 2nd ed., pp. 870–873). Oxford: Elsevier.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Gruber, H., Law, L.-C., Mandl, H., & Renkl, A. (1995). Situated learning and transfer. In P. Reimann & H. Spada (Eds.), Learning in humans and machines: Towards an interdisciplinary learning science (pp. 168–188). Oxford: Pergamon.Google Scholar
  49. Gruber, H., Lehtinen, E., Palonen, T., & Degner, S. (2008b). Persons in the shadow: Assessing the social context of high abilities. Psychology Science Quarterly, 50, 237–258.Google Scholar
  50. Gruson, L. M. (1988). Rehearsal skill and musical competence: Does practice make perfect? In J. A. Sloboda (Ed.), Generative processes in music (pp. 91–112). Oxford: Clarendon.Google Scholar
  51. Hargreaves, D. J., Cork, C. A., & Setton, T. (1991). Cognitive strategies in jazz improvisation: An exploratory study. Canadian Journal of Research in Music Education, 33, 47–54.Google Scholar
  52. Harhoff, D., & Kane, T. J. (1997). Is the German apprenticeship system a panacea for the U.S. labor market? Journal of Population Economics, 10, 171–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hasse, C. (2014). The anthropological paradigm of practice-based learning. In S. Billett, C. Harteis, & H. Gruber (Eds.), International handbook of research in professional and practice-based learning (pp. 369–393). Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  54. Hayes, J. R. (1989). The complete problem solver (2nd ed.). Hillsdale: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  55. Jordan, B. (Ed.). (2013). Advancing ethnography in corporate environments. Challenges and emerging opportunities. Walnut Creek: Left Coast Press.Google Scholar
  56. Jordan, B. (2014). Technology and social interaction: Notes on the achievement of authoritative knowledge in complex settings. Talent Development and Excellence, 6, 95–132.Google Scholar
  57. Jørgensen, H. C. (2002). Instrumental performance expertise and amount of practice among instrumental students in a conservatoire. Music Education Research, 4, 105–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Kerschensteiner, G. (1912). Begriff der Arbeitsschule [The concept of work school]. Leipzig: Teubner.Google Scholar
  59. Kilpatrick, W. H. (1922). The project method: The use of the purposeful act in the educative process. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  60. Knorr-Cetina, K. (1999). Epistemic cultures. How the sciences make knowledge. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  61. Kolb, D. A. (1984). Experiential learning. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  62. Lajoie, S. P. (2009). Developing professional expertise with a cognitive apprenticeship model: Examples from avionics and medicine. In K. A. Ericsson (Ed.), Development of professional expertise. Toward measurement of expert performance and design of optimal learning environments (pp. 61–83). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Lave, J. (1988). Cognition in practice: Mind, mathematics, and culture in everyday life. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Lave, J. (1991). Situated learning in communities of practice. In L. B. Resnick, J. M. Levine, & S. D. Teasley (Eds.), Perspectives on socially shared cognition (pp. 63–82). Washington: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Lave, J., & Wenger, E. (1991). Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Lehmann, A. C. (1997). Acquisition of expertise in music: Efficiency of deliberate practice as a moderating variable in accounting for sub-expert performance. In I. Deliege & J. Sloboda (Eds.), Perception and cognition of music (pp. 165–190). London: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  67. Lehmann, A. C. (2002). Effort and enjoyment in deliberate practice: A research note. In I. M. Hanken, S. G. Nielsen, & M. Nerland (Eds.), Research in and for music education. Festschrift for Harald Jørgensen (pp. 153–166). Norwegian Academy of Music: Oslo.Google Scholar
  68. Lehmann, A. C., & Ericsson, K. A. (2003). Expertise. In L. Nadel (Ed.), Encyclopedia of cognitive science (Vol. 2, pp. 79–85). London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  69. Lehmann, A. C., & Gruber, H. (2006). Music. In K. A. Ericsson, N. Charness, P. J. Feltovich, & R. R. Hoffman (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of expertise and expert performance (pp. 457–470). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Lehmann, A. C., & Gruber, H. (2014). Zielgerichtete Übung und Begabung. Zwanzig Jahre nach Ericsson, Krampe & Tesch-Römer (1993) [Deliberate practice and giftedness. Twenty years after Ericsson, Krampe, & Tesch-Römer (1993)]. In W. Gruhn & A. Seither-Preisler (Eds.), Der musikalische Mensch. Evolution, Biologie und Pädagogik musikalischer Begabung (pp. 87–107). Hildesheim: Olms.Google Scholar
  71. Lehmann, A. C., & Papousek, S. (2003). Self-reported performance goals predict actual practice behavior among adult piano beginners. In R. Kopiez, A. C. Lehmann, I. Wolther, & C. Wolf (Eds.), Proceedings of the 5th triennial conference of the European Society for the Cognitive Sciences of Music (pp. 389–392). Hannover: University of Music and Drama.Google Scholar
  72. Levine, J. M., Resnick, L. B., & Higgins, E. T. (1993). Social foundations of cognition. Annual Review of Psychology, 44, 585–612.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Mandl, H., Gruber, H., & Renkl, A. (1993). Misconceptions and knowledge compartmentalization. In G. Strube & K. F. Wender (Eds.), The cognitive psychology of knowledge (pp. 161–176). Amsterdam: North-Holland.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Mandl, H., Gruber, H., & Renkl, A. (1995). Mental models of complex systems: When veridicality decreases functionality. In C. Zucchermaglio, S. Bagnara, & S. U. Stucky (Eds.), Organizational learning and technological change (pp. 102–111). Berlin: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Mandl, H., Gruber, H., & Renkl, A. (1996b). Learning to apply: From “school garden instruction” to technology-based learning environments. In S. Vosniadou, E. de Corte, R. Glaser, & H. Mandl (Eds.), International perspectives on the design of technology-supported learning environments (pp. 307–321). Mahwah: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  76. Maturana, H. R., & Varela, F. J. (1991). Autopoiesis and cognition: The realization of the living. Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  77. McPherson, G. E., & Zimmerman, B. J. (2002). Self-regulation of musical learning. In R. Colwell & C. Richardson (Eds.), The new handbook of research on music teaching and learning: A project of the Music Educators National Conference (pp. 327–347). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  78. Mieg, H. A. (2006). Social and sociological factors in the development of expertise. In K. A. Ericsson, N. Charness, P. J. Feltovich, & R. R. Hoffman (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of expertise and expert performance (pp. 743–760). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. O’Byrne, K., Clark, R. E., & Malakuti, R. (1997). Expert and novice performance: Implications for clinical training. Educational Psychology Review, 9, 321–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Ortner, S. (2006). Anthropology and social theory: Culture, power, and the acting subject. Durham: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Patel, V. L., & Groen, G. J. (1991). The general and specific nature of medical expertise: A critical look. In K. A. Ericsson & J. Smith (Eds.), Toward a general theory of expertise: Prospects and limits (pp. 93–125). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  82. Proctor, R. W., & Vu, K. P. L. (2006). Stimulus-response compatibility principles: Data, theory, and application. Boca Raton: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  83. Rayner, K., Bradley, S., Johnson, G., Mrozik, J. H., Appiah, A., & Nagra, M. K. (2016). Teaching intensive interaction to paid carers: Using the “communities of practice” model to inform training. British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 44, 63–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Renkl, A., Mandl, H., & Gruber, H. (1996). Inert knowledge: Analyses and remedies. Educational Psychologist, 31, 115–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Renwick, J. M., & McPherson, G. E. (2002). Interest and choice: Student-selected repertoire and its effect on practising behaviour. British Journal of Music Education, 19, 173–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Renzulli, J. S. (1986). The three-ring conception of giftedness: A developmental model for creative productivity. In R. J. Sternberg & J. E. Davidson (Eds.), Conceptions of giftedness (pp. 53–92). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  87. Resnick, L. B. (1987). Learning in school and out. Educational Researcher, 16(9), 13–20.Google Scholar
  88. Resnick, L. B. (1990). Literacy in school and out. Daedalus, 119, 169–185.Google Scholar
  89. Resnick, L. B. (1991). Shared cognition: Thinking as social practice. In L. B. Resnick, J. M. Levine, & S. D. Teasley (Eds.), Perspectives on socially shared cognition (pp. 1–20). Washington: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Resnick, L. B. (1992). From protoquantities to operators: Building mathematical competence on a foundation of everyday knowledge. In G. Leinhardt, R. T. Putnam, & R. A. Hattrup (Eds.), Analysis of arithmetic for mathematics teaching (pp. 373–429). Hillsdale: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  91. Rogoff, B. (1984). Introduction: Thinking and learning in social context. In B. Rogoff & J. Lave (Eds.), Everyday cognition: Its development in social context (pp. 1–8). Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  92. Rogoff, B. (1990). Apprenticeship in thinking: Cognitive development in social context. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  93. Rogoff, B., & Wertsch, J. (Eds.). (1984). Children’s learning in the zone of proximal development. New directions for child development. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.Google Scholar
  94. Rogoff, B., Gauvain, M., & Ellis, S. (1991). Development viewed in its cultural context. In P. Light, S. Sheldon, & M. Woodhead (Eds.), Learning to think: Child development in social context (pp. 292–339). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  95. Schoenfeld, A. H. (1985). Metacognitive and epistemological issues in mathematical understanding. Teaching and learning Mathematical Problem Solving: Multiple Research Perspectives, 89, 361–380.Google Scholar
  96. Schön, D. A. (1987). Educating the reflective practitioner: Toward a new design for teaching and learning in the professions. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  97. Schraagen, J. M. C. (2009). Designing training for professionals based on subject-matter experts and cognitive task analysis. In K. A. Ericsson (Ed.), Development of professional expertise: Toward measurement of expert performance and design of optimal learning environments (pp. 157–179). New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Schunk, D. H., & Hanson, A. R. (1985). Peer models: Influence on children’s self-efficacy and achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 77, 313–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Scribner, S. (1985). Vygotsky’s uses of history. In J. V. Wertsch (Ed.), Culture, communication, and cognition: Vygotskian perspectives (pp. 119–145). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  100. Sloane, P. F. E. (2014). Professional education between school and practice settings: The German dual system as an example. In S. Billett, C. Harteis, & H. Gruber (Eds.), International handbook of research in professional and practice-based learning (pp. 397–426). Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  101. Sloboda, J. A., Davidson, J. W., Howe, M. J. A., & Moore, D. G. (1996). The role of practice in the development of performing musicians. British Journal of Psychology, 87, 287–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Sosniak, L. A. (1985). Learning to become a concert pianist. In B. S. Bloom (Ed.), Developing talent in young people (pp. 19–67). New York: Ballantine.Google Scholar
  103. Sosniak, L. A. (2006). Retrospective interviews in the study of expertise and expert performance. In K. A. Ericsson, N. Charness, P. J. Feltovich, & R. R. Hoffman (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of expertise and expert performance (pp. 287–301). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Spiro, R. J., Vispoel, W. P., Schmitz, J. G., Samarapungavan, A., & Boerger, A. E. (1987). Knowledge acquisition for application. In B. K. Britton & S. M. Glynn (Eds.), Executive control processes in reading (pp. 177–199). Hillsdale: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  105. Spiro, R. J., Feltovich, P. J., Jacobson, M. J., & Coulson, R. L. (1991). Cognitive flexibility, constructivism, and hypertext: Random access instruction for advanced knowledge acquisition in ill-structured domains. Educational Technology, 31(5), 24–33.Google Scholar
  106. Stark, R., Gruber, H., Renkl, A., & Mandl, H. (1998a). Instructional effects in complex learning: Do objective and subjective learning outcomes converge? Learning & Instruction, 8, 117–129.Google Scholar
  107. Stark, R., Mandl, H., Gruber, H., & Renkl, A. (1998b). Indeed, sometimes knowledge does not help: A replication study. Instructional Science, 26, 391–407.Google Scholar
  108. Strasser, J., & Gruber, H. (2004). The role of experience in professional training and development of psychological counselors. In H. P. A. Boshuizen, R. Bromme, & H. Gruber (Eds.), Professional learning: Gaps and transitions on the way from novice to expert (pp. 11–27). Dordrecht: Kluwer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Strasser, J., & Gruber, H. (2005). Reflection and the development of psychological counsellors’ professional knowledge. In H. Gruber, C. Harteis, R. H. Mulder, & M. Rehrl (Eds.), Bridging individual, organisational, and cultural perspectives on professional learning (pp. 221–226). Regensburg: Roderer.Google Scholar
  110. Strasser, J., & Gruber, H. (2015). Learning processes in the professional development of mental health counselors: Knowledge restructuring and illness script formation. Advances in Health Sciences Education, 20, 515–530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Szymanski, M. H., & Whalen, J. (Eds.). (2011). Making work visible: Ethnographically grounded case studies of work practice. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  112. Valsiner, J. (1991). Building theoretical bridges over a lagoon of everyday events: A review of apprenticeship in thinking: Cognitive development in social context by Barbara Rogoff. Human Development, 34, 307–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Van de Wiel, M. W. J., & Van den Bossche, P. (2013). Deliberate practice in medicine: The motivation to engage in work-related learning and its contribution to expertise. Vocations and Learning: Studies in Vocational and Professional Education, 6, 135–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Van de Wiel, M. W. J., Van den Bossche, P., Janssen, S., & Jossberger, H. (2011). Exploring deliberate practice in medicine: How do physicians learn in the workplace? Advances in Health Sciences Education. Studies in Vocational and Professional Education, 16, 81–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Vitouch, O. (2005). Erwerb musikalischer Expertise [Acquisition of expertise in music]. In N. Birbaumer, D. Frey, J. Kuhl, W. Schneider, & R. Schwarzer (Eds.), Enzyklopädie der Psychologie (pp. 657–715). Göttingen: Hogrefe.Google Scholar
  116. von Glasersfeld, E. (1995). Radical constructivism: A way of knowing and learning. Bristol: Falmer Press, Taylor & Francis.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Voss, J. F., Blais, J., Means, M. L., Greene, T. R., & Ahwesh, E. (1986). Informal reasoning and subject matter knowledge in the solving of economics problems by naive and novice individuals. Cognition and Instruction, 4, 269–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  119. Weisberg, R. W. (1999). I2 creativity and knowledge: A challenge to theories. In R. Sternberg (Ed.), Handbook of creativity (pp. 226–250). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  120. Wenger, E. (1990). Toward a theory of cultural transparency. Irvine: University of California.Google Scholar
  121. Wieland, C. (2015). Germany’s dual vocational-training system: Possibilities for and limitations to transferability. Local Economy, 30, 577–583.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Zorga, S. (2002). Professional supervision as a mean of learning and development of counselors. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 24, 261–274.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hans Gruber
    • 1
  • Christian Harteis
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of Educational ScienceUniversity of RegensburgRegensburgGermany
  2. 2.Institute of Educational SciencePaderborn UniversityPaderbornGermany

Personalised recommendations