Stress, the Immune System, and Healthy Ageing

  • Anna C. WhittakerEmail author


With ageing, the immune system does not function as well as it did earlier in life, leaving individuals open to a range of diseases including infections. Negative psychological factors such as stress and depression can worsen immunity, and in some cases, this is particularly the case among older adults. However, there are also positive psychological factors that have been shown to relate to positive immune and health outcomes. This chapter outlines the links between psychological and behavioural factors and the immune system, particularly in the context of ageing. It focuses on key positive and negative psychological factors that can boost or be detrimental to our immunity and briefly touches on the mechanisms by which these factors influence immunity and health in later life.


Ageing Bereavement Caregiving Cortisol:DHEAS ratio Immunity Life events Neutrophils Social support Stress Vaccination 


  1. Barger, S. D. (2013). Social Integration, Social Support and Mortality in the US National Health Interview Survey. Psychosomatic Medicine, 75(5), 510–517. doi:PSY.0b013e318292ad99 [pii]
  2. Barrett, E. J. (2005). The Adrenal Gland. In W. F. Boron & E. L. Boulpaep (Eds.), Medical Physiology: A Cellular and Molecular Approach (pp. 1049–1065). New York/Amsterdam: Elsevier Inc.Google Scholar
  3. Bartrop, R. W., Luckhurst, E., Lazarus, L., Kiloh, L. G., & Penny, R. (1977). Depressed Lymphocyte Function After Bereavement. Lancet, 1(8016), 834–836.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bauer, M. E., Vedhara, K., Perks, P., Wilcock, G. K., Lightman, S. L., & Shanks, N. (2000). Chronic Stress in Caregivers of Dementia Patients Is Associated with Reduced Lymphocyte Sensitivity to Glucocorticoids. Journal of Neuroimmunology, 103(1), 84–92. Scholar
  5. Berkman, L. F., & Syme, S. L. (1979). Social Networks, Host Resistance, and Mortality: A Nine-Year Follow-Up Study of Alameda County Residents. American Journal of Epidemiology, 109(2), 186–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Boscarino, J. A. (1997). Diseases Among Men 20 Years After Exposure to Severe Stress: Implications for Clinical Research and Medical Care. Psychosomatic Medicine, 59(6), 605–614.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Burns, V. E., Carroll, D., Drayson, M., Whitham, M., & Ring, C. (2003). Life Events, Perceived Stress and Antibody Response to Influenza Vaccination in Young Healthy Adults. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 55, 569–572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Butcher, S. K., Chahal, H., Nayak, L., Sinclair, A., Henriquez, N. V., Sapey, E., et al. (2001). Senescence in Innate Immune Responses: Reduced Neutrophil Phagocytic Capacity and CD16 Expression in Elderly Humans. Journal of Leukocyte Biology, 70(6), 881–886.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Butcher, S. K., Killampalli, V., Chahal, H., Kaya Alpar, E., & Lord, J. M. (2003). Effect of Age on Susceptibility to Post-Traumatic Infection in the Elderly. Biochemical Society Transactions, 31(2), 449–451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Butcher, S. K., Killampalli, V., Lascelles, D., Wang, K., Alpar, E. K., & Lord, J. M. (2005). Raised Cortisol:DHEAS Ratios in the Elderly After Injury: Potential Impact Upon Neutrophil Function and Immunity. Aging Cell, 4(6), 319–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cannon, W. B. (1929). Bodily Changes in Pain, Hunger, Fear, and Rage. New York: D. Appleton & Co.Google Scholar
  12. Carroll, D., Phillips, A. C., Ring, C., Der, G., & Hunt, K. (2005). Life Events and Hemodynamic Stress Reactivity in the Middle-Aged and Elderly. Psychophysiology, 42, 269–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Charmandari, E., Tsigos, C., & Chrousos, G. (2005). Endocrinology of the Stress Response. Annual Review of Physiology, 67, 259–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cohen, S., Kamarck, T., & Mermelstein, R. (1983). A global Measure of Perceived Stress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 24, 385–396. Scholar
  15. Cohen, S., Tyrell, D. A. J., & Smith, A. P. (1991). Psychological Stress and Susceptibility to the Common Cold. The New England Journal of Medicine, 325, 606–612.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Coyne, J. C., & DeLongis, A. (1986). Going Beyond Social Support: The Role of Social Relationships in Adaptation. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 54(4), 454–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cutler, R. G. (1991). Antioxidants and Aging. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 53(1 Suppl), 373S–379S.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Duggal, N. A., Upton, J., Phillips, A. C., & Lord, J. M. (2013). Depression Is Associated with Reduced Neutrophil Function in Hip Fracture Patients. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 33, 173–182. Scholar
  19. Edwards, K. M., Burns, V. E., Reynolds, T., Carroll, D., Drayson, M., & Ring, C. (2006). Acute Stress Exposure Prior to Influenza Vaccination Enhances Antibody Response in Women. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 20, 159–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Elenkov, I. J., & Chrousos, G. P. (2002). Stress Hormones, Proinflammatory and Antiinflammatory Cytokines, and Autoimmunity. In M. Cutolo, J. W. J. Bijlsma, R. G. Lahita, A. T. Masi, R. H. Straub, & H. L. Bradlow (Eds.), Neuroendocrine Immune Basis of the Rheumatic Diseases Ii, Proceedings (Vol. 966, pp. 290–303). New York: New York Academy of Science.Google Scholar
  21. Ershler, W. B., & Keller, E. T. (2000). Age-Associated Increased Interleukin-6 Gene Expression, Late-life Diseases, and Frailty. Annual Review of Medicine, 51, 245–270. Scholar
  22. Esterling, B. A., Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K., Bodnar, J. C., & Glaser, R. (1994). CHRONIC Stress, Social Support and Persistent Alterations in the Natural-Killer Cell Response to Cytokines in Older Adults. Health Psychology, 13(4), 291–298. Scholar
  23. Franceschi, C., Capri, M., Monti, D., Giunta, S., Olivieri, F., Sevini, F., et al. (2007). Inflammaging and Anti-Inflammaging: A Systemic Perspective on Aging and Longevity Emerged from Studies in humans. Mechanisms of Ageing and Development, 128(1), 92–105. S0047-6374(06)00249-1.[pii]10.1016/j.mad.2006.11.016CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gallagher, S., Carroll, D., & Phillips, A. C. (2007). Life Events Stress and Antibody Response to Hepatitis A Vaccination. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 21 e13. Abstract.Google Scholar
  25. Gallagher, S., Phillips, A. C., Evans, P., Der, G., Hunt, K., & Carroll, D. (2008a). Caregiving Is Associated with Low Secretion Rates of Immunoglobulin A in Saliva. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 22(4), 565–572. S0889-1591(07)00309-1 [pii]10.1016/j.bbi.2007.11.007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gallagher, S., Phillips, A. C., Ferraro, A. J., Drayson, M. T., & Carroll, D. (2008b). Psychosocial Factors Are Associated with the Antibody Response to Both Thymus-Dependent and Thymus-Independent Vaccines. Brain Behaviour & Immunity, 22, 456–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gallagher, S., Phillips, A. C., Drayson, M. T., & Carroll, D. (2009a). Caregiving for Children with Developmental Disabilities Is Associated with a Poor Antibody Response to Influenza Vaccination. Psychosomatic Medicine, 71(3), 341–344. Scholar
  28. Gallagher, S., Phillips, A. C., Drayson, M. T., & Carroll, D. (2009b). Parental Caregivers of Children with Developmental Disabilities Mount a Poor Antibody Response to Pneumococcal Vaccination. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 23, 338–346. Scholar
  29. Glaser, R., & Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K. (1997). Chronic Stress Modulates the Virus-Specific Immune Response to Latent Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 19(2), 78–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Glaser, R., Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K., Bonneau, R. H., Malarkey, W., Kennedy, S., & Hughes, J. (1992). Stress-Induced Modulation of the Immune Response to Recombinant Hepatitis B Vaccine. Psychosomatic Medicine, 54, 22–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Glaser, R., Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K., Malarkey, W., & Sheridan, J. F. (1998). The Influence of Psychological Stress on the Immune Response to Vaccines. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 840, 649–655.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Glaser, R., Kiecolt-Glaser, P. K., Marucha, P. T., MacCallum, R. C., Laskowski, B. F., & Malarkey, W. B. (1999). Stress-Related Changes in Proinflammatory Cytokine Production in Wounds. Archives of General Psychiatry, 56(5), 450–456. Scholar
  33. Glaser, R., Sheridan, J., Malarkey, W. B., MacCallum, R. C., & Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K. (2000). Chronic Stress Modulates the Immune Response to a Pneumococcal Pneumonia Vaccine. Psychosomatic Medicine, 62(6), 804–807.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Glaser, R., MacCallum, R. C., Laskowski, B. F., Malarkey, W. B., Sheridan, J. F., & Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K. (2001). Evidence for a Shift in the Th-1 to Th-2 Cytokine Response Associated with Chronic Stress and Aging (vol 56, pg 477, 2001). Journals of Gerontology Series a-Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 56(11), M673–M673.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Goodkin, K., Feaster, D. J., Tuttle, R., Blaney, N. T., Kumar, M., Baum, M. K., et al. (1996). Bereavement Is Associated with Time-Dependent Decrements in Cellular Immune Function in Asymptomatic Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 Seropositive Homosexual Men. Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology, 3, 109–118.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. Gordon, H. S., & Rosenthal, G. E. (1995). Impact of Marital Status on Outcomes in Hospitalized Patients. Evidence from an Academic Medical Center. Archives of Internal Medicine, 155(22), 2465–2471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gouin, J. P., Hantsoo, L., & Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K. (2008). Immune Dysregulation and Chronic Stress Among Older Adults: A Review. Neuroimmunomodulation, 15(4–6), 251–259. Scholar
  38. Graham, J. E., Christian, L. M., & Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K. (2006). Stress, Age, and Immune Function: Toward a Lifespan Approach. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 29(4), 389–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Griffin, J. E., & Ojeda, S. R. (2004). Textbook of Endocrine Physiology. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  40. Hazeldine, J., Hampson, P., & Lord, J. M. (2012). Reduced Release and Binding of Perforin at the Immunological Synapse Underlies the Age-Related Decline in Natural Killer Cell Cytotoxicity. Aging Cell, 1–9.Google Scholar
  41. House, J. S., Robbins, C., & Metzner, H. L. (1982). The Association of Social Relationships and Activities with Mortality: Prospective Evidence from the Tecumseh Community Health Study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 116(1), 123–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. House, J. S., Landis, K. R., & Umberson, D. (1988). Social Relationships and Health. Science, 241(4865), 540–545.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Irwin, M., Daniels, M., Smith, T. L., Bloom, E., & Weiner, H. (1987). Impaired Natural Killer Cell Activity During Bereavement. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 1(1), 98–104. Scholar
  44. Johnson, N. J., Backlund, E., Sorlie, P. D., & Loveless, C. A. (2000). Marital Status and Mortality: The National Longitudinal Mortality Study. Annals of Epidemiology, 10(4), 224–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kaplan, G. A., Salonen, J. T., Cohen, R. D., Brand, R. J., Syme, S. L., & Puska, P. (1988). Social Connections and Mortality from All Causes and from Cardiovascular Disease: Prospective Evidence from Eastern Finland. American Journal of Epidemiology, 128(2), 370–380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kemeny, M. E., Weiner, H., Duran, R., Taylor, S. E., Visscher, B., & Fahey, J. L. (1995). Immune System Changes After the Death of a Partner in HIV-Positive Gay Men. Psychosomatic Medicine, 57(6), 547–554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Khanfer, R., Lord, J. M., & Phillips, A. C. (2011). Neutrophil Function and Cortisol:DHEAS Ratio in Bereaved Older Adults. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 25(6), 1182–1186. Scholar
  48. Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K., & Newton, T. L. (2001). Marriage and Health: His and Hers. Psychological Bulletin, 127(4), 472–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K., Fisher, L. D., Ogrocki, P., Stout, J. C., Speicher, C. E., & Glaser, R. (1987). Marital Quality, Marital Disruption, and Immune Function. Psychosomatic Medicine, 49(1), 13–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K., Kennedy, S., Malkoff, S., Fisher, L., Speicher, C. E., & Glaser, R. (1988). Marital Discord and Immunity in Males. Psychosomatic Medicine, 50(3), 213–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K., Speicher, C. E., Glaser, R., Dura, J. R., & Trask, O. J. (1991). Spousal Caregivers of Dementia Victims—Longitudinal Changes in Immunity and Health. Psychosomatic Medicine, 53(4), 345–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K., Malarkey, W., Chee, M., Newton, T., Cacioppo, J. T., Mao, H. Y., & Glaser, R. (1993). Negative Behavior During Marital Conflict Is Associated with Immunological Down-Regulation. Psychosomatic Medicine, 55, 395–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K., Marucha, P. T., Malarkey, W. B., Mercado, A. M., & Glaser, R. (1995). Slowing of Wound-Healing by Psychological Stress. Lancet, 346(8984), 1194–1196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K., Glaser, R., Gravenstein, S., Malarkey, W. B., & Sheridan, J. (1996). Chronic Stress Alters the Immune Response to Influenza Virus Vaccine in Older Adults. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 93(7), 3043–3047. Scholar
  55. Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K., Glaser, R., Cacioppo, J. T., MacCallum, R. C., Snydersmith, M., Kim, C., & Malarkey, W. B. (1997). Marital Conflict in Older Adults: Endocrinological and Immunological Correlates. Psychosomatic Medicine, 59(4), 339–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kohut, M. L., Cooper, M. M., Nickolaus, M. S., Russell, D. R., & Cunnick, J. E. (2002). Exercise and Psychosocial Factors Modulate Immunity to Influenza Vaccine in Elderly Individuals. Journal of Gerontology, 57, 557–562.Google Scholar
  57. Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, Coping and Adaptation. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  58. Lewitus, G. M., & Schwartz, M. (2009). Behavioral Immunization: Immunity to Self-Antigens Contributes to Psychological Stress Resilience. Molecular Psychiatry, 14(5), 532–536. mp2008103 [pii]10.1038/mp.2008.103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. McEwen, B. S. (1998). Protective and damaging effects of stress mediators. The New England Journal of Medicine, 338(3), 171–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Miller, G. E., Dopp, J. M., Myers, H. F., Stevens, S. Y., & Fahey, J. L. (1999). Psychosocial Predictors of Natural Killer Cell Mobilization During Marital Conflict. Health Psychology, 18(3), 262–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Moynihan, J. A., Larson, M. R., Treanor, J., Duberstein, P. R., Power, A., Shore, B., & Ader, R. (2004). Psychosocial Factors and the Response to Influenza Vaccination in Older Adults. Psychosomatic Medicine, 66(6), 950–953.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Munck, A., Guyre, P. M., & Holbrook, N. J. (1984). Physiological Functions of Glucocorticoids in Stress and Their Relation to Pharmacological Actions. Endocrine Reviews, 5(1), 25–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Ogata, K., An, E., Shioi, Y., Nakamura, K., Luo, S., Yokose, N., et al. (2001). Association Between Natural Killer Cell Activity and Infection in Immunologically Normal Elderly People. Clinical and Experimental Immunology, 124(3), 392–397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Orentreich, N., Brind, J. L., Rizer, R. L., & Vogelman, J. H. (1984). Age-Changes and Sex-Differences in Serum Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulphate Concentrations Throughout Adulthood. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 59(3), 551–555.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Orentreich, N., Brind, J. L., Vogelman, J. H., Andres, R., & Baldwin, H. (1992). Long-Term Longitudinal Measurements of Plasma Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate in Normal Men. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 75(4), 1002–1004.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Pariante, C. M., Carpiniello, B., Orru, M. G., Sitzia, R., Piras, A., Farci, A. M. G., et al. (1997). Chronic Caregiving Stress Alters Peripheral Blood Immune Parameters: The Role of Age and Severity of Stress. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 66(4), 199–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Phillips, A. C. (2011). Blunted Cardiovascular Reactivity Relates to Depression, Obesity, and Self-Reported Health. Biological Psychology, 86(2), 106–113. Scholar
  68. Phillips, A. C., Burns, V. E., Carroll, D., Ring, C., & Drayson, M. (2005). The Association Between Life Events, Social Support and Antibody Status Following Thymus-Dependent and Thymus-Independent Vaccinations in Healthy Young Adults. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 19, 325–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Phillips, A. C., Carroll, D., Bums, V. E., Ring, C., Macleod, J., & Drayson, M. (2006a). Bereavement and Marriage Are Associated with Antibody Response to Influenza Vaccination in the Elderly. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 20(3), 279–289. Scholar
  70. Phillips, A. C., Carroll, D., Evans, P., Bosch, J. A., Clow, A., Hucklebridge, F., & Der, G. (2006b). Stressful Life Events Are Associated with Low Secretion Rates of Immunoglobulin A in Saliva in the Middle Aged and Elderly. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 20, 191–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Phillips, A. C., Burns, V. E., & Lord, J. M. (2007). Stress and Exercise: Getting the Balance Right for an Ageing Immune System. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 35, 35–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Phillips, A. C., Upton, J., Duggal, N. A., Carroll, D., & Lord, J. M. (2013). Depression Following Hip Fracture Is Associated with Increased Physical Frailty in Older Adults: The Role of the Cortisol: Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulphate Ratio. BMC Geriatrics, 13(1), 60. doi:1471-2318-13-60 [pii]
  73. Pinquart, M., & Sorensen, S. (2003). Differences Between Caregivers and Noncaregivers in Psychological Health and Physical Health: A Meta-Analysis. Psychology and Aging, 18(2), 250–267. Scholar
  74. Pressman, S. D., Cohen, S., Miller, G. E., Barkin, A., Rabin, B. S., & Treanor, J. J. (2005). Loneliness, Social Network Size, and Immune Response to Influenza Vaccination in College Freshmen. Health Psychology, 24(3), 297–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Rasmussen, L. E. (1991). Gene Products of Cytomegalovirus and Their Immunologic Significance. In H. M (Ed.), Cytomegalovirus: Biology and Infection (2nd ed.). New York: Plenum Medical Book Company.Google Scholar
  76. Robles, T. F., & Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K. (2003). The Physiology of Marriage: Pathways to Health. Physiology & Behavior, 79(3), 409–416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Rosengren, A., Orth-Gomer, K., Wedel, H., & Wilhelmsen, L. (1993). Stressful Life Events, Social Support, and Mortality in Men Born in 1933. British Medical Journal, 307(6912), 1102–1105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Sapolsky, R. M. (2007). Robert Sapolsky Discusses Physiological Effects of Stress. Stanford News. Retrieved from
  79. Sapolsky, R. M., Romero, L. M., & Munck, A. U. (2000). How Do Glucocorticoids Influence Stress Responses? Integrating Permissive, Suppressive, Stimulatory, and Preparative Actions. Endocrinological Review, 21(1), 55–89.Google Scholar
  80. Schleifer, S. J., Keller, S. E., Camerino, M., Thornton, J. C., & Stein, M. (1983). Suppression of Lymphocyte Stimulation Following Bereavement. Jama-Journal of the American Medical Association, 250(3), 374–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Sedova, L., Berube, J., Gaudet, D., Dumont, M., Tremblay, J., Hamet, P., & Pausova, Z. (2004). Diet-Induced Obesity Delays Cardiovascular Recovery from Stress in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats. Obesity Research, 12(12), 1951–1958. Scholar
  82. Sheffield, D., McVey, C., & Carroll, D. (1996). Daily Events and Somatic Symptoms: Evidence of a Lagged Relationship. The British Journal of Medical Psychology, 69, 267–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Siergist, C. A. (2008). Vaccine Immunology. In S. Plotkin, W. Orenstein, & P. Offit (Eds.), Vaccines (pp. 17–36). Philadelphia: Saunders, Elsevier.Google Scholar
  84. Sorrells, S. F., & Sapolsky, R. M. (2007). An Inflammatory Review of Glucocorticoid Actions in the CNS. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 21(3), 259–272. Scholar
  85. Stahl, S. T., Arnold, A. M., Chen, J.-Y., Anderson, S., & Schulz, R. (2016). Mortality After Bereavement: The Role of Cardiovascular Disease and Depression. Psychosomatic Medicine, 78(6), 697–703. Scholar
  86. Thompson, W. W., Shay, D. K., Weintraub, E., Brammer, L., Cox, N., Anderson, L. J., & Fukuda, K. (2003). Mortality Associated with Influenza and Respiratory Syncytial Virus in the United States. Jama-Journal of the American Medical Association, 289(2), 179–186. Scholar
  87. Vedhara, K., Cox, N. K. M., Wilcock, G. K., Perks, P., Hunt, M., Anderson, S., et al. (1999a). Chronic Stress in Elderly Carers of Dementia Patients and Antibody Response to Influenza Vaccination. Lancet, 353(9153), 627–631. Scholar
  88. Vedhara, K., Cox, N. K. M., Wilcock, G. K., Perks, P., Hunt, M., Anderson, S., et al. (1999b). Chronic Stress in Elderly Carers of Dementia Patients and Antibody Response to Influenza Vaccination. Lancet, 20, 627–631.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Vedhara, K., McDermott, M. P., Evans, T. G., Treanor, J. J., Plummer, S., Tallon, D., et al. (2002). Chronic Stress in Non-Elderly Caregivers: Psychological, Endocrine and Immune IMPLICATIONS. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 53(6), 1153–1161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Verbrugge, L. M. (1979). Marital Status and Health. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 41, 267–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Vitlic, A., Khanfer, R., Lord, J. M., Carroll, D., & Phillips, A. C. (2014). Bereavement Reduces Neutrophil Oxidative Burst Only in Older Adults: Role of the HPA Axis and Immunesenescence. Immunity and Ageing, 11(1).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Vitlic, A., Lord, J. M., Taylor, A. E., Arlt, W., Bartlett, D. B., Rossi, A., et al. (2015). Neutrophil Function in Young and Old Caregivers. British Journal of Health Psychology, 21, 173. Scholar
  93. von Kanel, R., Dimsdale, J. E., Mills, P. J., Ancoli-Israel, S., Patterson, T. L., Mausbach, B. T., & Grant, I. (2006). Effect of Alzheimer Caregiving Stress and Age on Frailty Markers Interleukin-6, C-Reactive Protein, and D-Dimer. Journals of Gerontology Series a-Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 61(9), 963–969.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Zisook, S., Shuchter, S. R., Irwin, M., Darko, D. F., Sledge, P., & Resovsky, K. (1994). Bereavement, Depression, and Immune Function. Psychiatry Research, 52(1), 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation SciencesUniversity of BirminghamBirminghamUK

Personalised recommendations