Prediction of High-Dimensional Time Series with Exogenous Variables Using Generalized Koopman Operator Framework in Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Space

  • Jia-Chen HuaEmail author
  • Farzad Noorian
  • Philip H. W. Leong
  • Gemunu Gunaratne
  • Jorge Gonçalves
Conference paper
Part of the Contributions to Statistics book series (CONTRIB.STAT.)


We propose a novel methodology to predict high-dimensional time series with exogenous variables using Koopman operator framework, by assuming that the time series are generated by some underlying unknown dynamical system with input as exogenous variables. In order to do that, we first generalize the definition of the original Koopman operator to allow for input to the underlying dynamical system. We then obtain a formulation of the generalized Koopman operator in reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS) and a new derivation of its numerical approximation methods, namely, Extended Dynamic Mode Decomposition (EDMD) and its kernel-based version. We also obtain a statistical interpretation of kernel-based EDMD developed for deterministic Koopman operator by utilizing the connection between RKHS and Gaussian processes regression, and relate it to the stochastic Koopman and Perron–Frobenius operator. In applications, we found that the prediction performance of this methodology is promising in forecasting real-world high-dimensional time series with exogenous variables, including financial markets data. We believe that this methodology will be of interest to the community of scientists and engineers working on quantitative finance, econometrics, system biology, neurosciences, meteorology, oceanography, system identification and control, data mining, machine learning, computational intelligence, and many other fields involving high-dimensional time series and spatiotemporal data.


High-dimensional time series Spatiotemporal dynamics Complex system Koopman operator Perron–Frobenius operator Dynamical system Reproducing kernel Hilbert space Gaussian processes Machine learning Data mining Econophysics Financial markets modeling Energy forecasting Collective behavior 



The corresponding author would like to thank Dr. Alexandre Mauroy for insightful discussions on generalizing Koopman operator to systems with input.


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Luxembourg Centre for Systems Biomedicine, University of LuxembourgBelvauxLuxembourg
  2. 2.School of Electrical and Information Engineering, University of SydneySydneyAustralia
  3. 3.Department of PhysicsUniversity of HoustonHoustonUSA

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