Operational Amplifier and Amplifier Models

  • Sergey N. Makarov
  • Reinhold Ludwig
  • Stephen J. Bitar


Knowledge of major circuit elements (dependent sources) and their υ-i characteristics (Chap.  2)


Operational amplifier: (abbreviation op-amp integrated circuit dual in-line package non-inverting input inverting input output terminal power terminals offset-null terminals differential input voltage open-circuit voltage gain open-loop voltage gain open-loop configuration closed-loop configuration power rails voltage transfer characteristic rail-to-rail comparator digital repeater zero-level detector circuit model input resistance output resistance ideal amplifier ideal-amplifier model marking summing point common-mode input signal differential input signal summing-point constraints first summing-point constraint second summing-point constraint sourcing current sinking current DC imperfections input offset voltage input bias current input offset currents) Negative feedback Feedback loop Feedback as a dynamic process Non-inverting amplifier Inverting amplifier Voltage follower (buffer) amplifier Summing amplifier Digital-to-analog converter Binary counter DC-coupled amplifier AC-coupled amplifier Capacitive coupling of an amplifier Gain tolerance of an amplifier Circuit model of a voltage amplifier Input resistance of amplifier circuit Output resistance of amplifier circuit Load bridging (impedance bridging) Load matching (impedance matching) Cascading amplifier stages Virtual-ground (integrated) circuit Differential voltage of a sensor Common-mode voltage of a sensor Differential sensor Single-ended sensor Difference amplifier Differential amplifier circuit gain Common-mode amplifier circuit gain Common-mode rejection ratio (CMRR) Unity common-mode gain stage Instrumentation amplifier Load cell Current amplifier using op-amp Transconductance amplifier using op-amp Transresistance amplifier using op-amp Howland current source (Howland current pump) Linear feedback system: (forward gain open-loop gain feedback gain feedback factor summing node difference node closed-loop gain error signal) 

Supplementary material

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sergey N. Makarov
    • 1
  • Reinhold Ludwig
    • 2
  • Stephen J. Bitar
    • 3
  1. 1.ECE DepartmentWorcester Polytechnic InstituteWorcesterUSA
  2. 2.ECE DepartmentWorcester Polytechnic InstituteWorcesterUSA
  3. 3.Worcester Polytechnic InstituteWorcesterUSA

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